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(Russian manifestatsiia), a massive public gathering to express solidarity or a protest.
(1) A competitive automobile run measuring the precision with which participants travel along a given course according to an assigned schedule. Additional speed competitions in a rally include races on highways, tracks, and sections of mountain road, and competitions in executing prescribed figures. In one-day rallies there are single-driver entries, whereas in rallies lasting several days there are teams of two or three drivers. A rally is generally between 1,000 and 2,000 km in distance, with 20 to 40 additional events. In two- or three-day rallies, the automobiles run 24 hours a day. Pit stops, with strict rules for entering, exiting, and servicing cars, may be organized before the start, during rest breaks, and after the finish. For the most part, assembly-line passenger automobiles with certain design changes are used.
The first modern rally was held in 1894, from Paris to Rouen and back. The most important international competition, the Monte Carlo Rally, has been held since 1911. Since the 1940’s rallies have become popular in many European countries, including Great Britain, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Finland, Sweden, Italy, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, and Poland. Competitions to decide the individual rally champion of Europe have been held since 1953, and competitions for the world championship were begun in 1972. Teams of professionals representing the major automobile companies take part in the most important international rallies. In the USSR, the first all-Union rallies were held in 1957, and the country’s first championship was decided in 1958. Since the late 1950’s, Soviet drivers have participated in international rallies; in the team rallies known as the Tour d’Europe they won the gold and silver cups in 1971 and 1974.
(2) Motorcycle rallies are meets in which teams proceed from various starting points and come together at an assigned point on a determined day. The teams themselves determine the starting time and place, and there are no rules governing movement along the route.
The International Motorcycle Federation (FIM) has held an international rally every year since 1936; since the FIM does not recommend that national federations apply the term “rally” to national meets, the meets are called star races in the USSR. Between 1963 and 1973, Soviet motorcyclists won first prize at the rally eight times. First prize is awarded to the national team that scores the highest number of points, which are determined by the number of participants and the number of kilometers covered. Since 1970 the Iu. A. Gagarin Cup, established in the Central Automobile and Motorcycle Club of the USSR, has been awarded at the rally.
V. F. LAPIN AND G. M. AFREMOV