The combination of a nadir- and a slant-forward-pointing Doppler lidar would allow 2D wind synthesis, and, in combination with a Raman lidar, vertical moisture and heat fluxes could be estimated.
This includes passive sensors in the microwave and infrared regions, and active sensors, especially differential absorption lidars (DIALs) and Raman lidars. The development of the compact water vapor DIALs at NCAR/EOL (Fig.
For selective gas detection raman lidars
are also utilized.
Free tropospheric smoke plumes were detected over Evora, Portugal, with Raman lidar during October 2011.
Stohl, "Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization," Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol.
Wulfmeyer, 2017: Characterisation of boundary layer turbulent processes by the Raman lidar BASIL in the frame of HD[(CP).sup.2] Observational Prototype Experiment.
Froidevaux, M., and Coauthors, 2013: A Raman lidar to measure water vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer.
The setup of a lidar station in the Amazon forest started in 2010, when the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, bought a commercial Raman lidar
from Raymetrics Ltd.
N., and Coauthors, 2006: Raman Lidar
Measurements during the International H2O Project.
Komppula, 2009: Portable Raman lidar
Polly*7 for automated profiling of aerosol backscatter, extinction, and depolarization.
System Measurements Raman lidar
Measures particle backscatter at 355, 532, and 1,064 nm.
The ARM SGP Raman lidar
is an operational system that was designed to measure water vapor, aerosols, and clouds over the diurnal cycle (Goldsmith et al.