Ramsay MacDonald

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MacDonald, Ramsay

(James Ramsay McDonald), 1866–1937, British statesman, b. Scotland. The illegitimate son of a servant, he went as a young man to London, where he joined the Social Democratic Federation (1885) and the Fabian Society (1886). He became (1894) a member of the newly formed Independent Labour party and was instrumental in organizing the Labour Representation Committee (later the LabourLabour party,
British political party, one of the two dominant parties in Great Britain since World War I. Origins

The Labour party was founded in 1900 after several generations of preparatory trade union politics made possible by the Reform Bills of 1867 and 1884,
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 party), in which he served (1900–1912) as first secretary. MacDonald was elected to Parliament in 1906 and was leader of the Labour party in the House of Commons (1911–14) until he was discredited and labeled a traitor for his pacifist stand at the outbreak of World War I. He lost his seat in Parliament in 1918 but was reelected in 1922 and again chosen to lead the Labour party. In Jan., 1924, he became prime minister and foreign secretary of the first Labour government of Great Britain. Although unemployment benefits were extended, his minority government did not enact strong socialist measures. In foreign affairs, however, MacDonald helped secure acceptance of the Dawes PlanDawes Plan,
presented in 1924 by the committee headed (1923–24) by Charles G. Dawes to the Reparations Commission of the Allied nations. It was accepted the same year by Germany and the Allies.
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 and sponsored the Geneva Protocol (later rejected by the Conservative government), which provided for compulsory arbitration of international disputes. A trade agreement with the Soviet Union and the government's withdrawal of charges against a Communist newspaper editor led to a vote of censure that forced MacDonald to call an election in Oct., 1924. Publication of the Zinoviev Letter (see under Zinoviev, Grigori EvseyevichZinoviev, Grigori Evseyevich
, 1883–1936, Soviet Communist leader, originally named Radomyslsky. He joined the Russian Social Democratic Labor party in 1901 and sided with Vladimir Lenin's Bolshevik faction after 1903 (see Bolshevism and Menshevism).
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) helped secure Labour's defeat. In 1929, MacDonald became prime minister in the second Labour government. Again it was a minority government and could not press a socialist program, and its strictly orthodox economic measures proved ineffective against the serious depression. In 1931, when proposed cuts in unemployment benefits split the Labour cabinet, MacDonald agreed to lead a coalition government (the National government), leaning heavily on Conservative support. This action was regarded as apostasy by most of the Labour party, which however was roundly defeated in the election that followed. Never completely trusted by his new Conservative allies, MacDonald was no more than a figurehead in the National government. In 1935 he resigned the prime ministership to Stanley BaldwinBaldwin, Stanley,
1867–1947, British statesman; cousin of Rudyard Kipling. The son of a Worcestershire ironmaster, he was educated at Harrow and at Trinity College, Cambridge, and entered the family business. In 1908 he was elected to Parliament as a Conservative.
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 and became lord president of the council. He lost his parliamentary seat in the same year but was returned in a by-election and remained in the cabinet until his death. MacDonald's writings include Parliament and Revolution (1920) and Socialism: Critical and Constructive (1924).

Bibliography

See biography by D. Marquand (1977); study by D. Carlton (1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
"The Survey is a mechanism that companies can use to benchmark themselves against their peers and competitors in the Namibian employment market as well as the southern African region and so assess their standings as employers of choice," said Ramsay McDonald, partner at Deloitte Namibia and head of the Namibian Deloitte 'Best Company to Work For' Survey.
Some Labour leaders, like Ramsay McDonald, were tamed once they got into power by being invited to dinner by duchesses and flattered out of their tiny minds, but they weren't all like that.
She became Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Health in Ramsay McDonald's Labour government in 1929, but in 1931 she lost her seat in a straight fight with the Liberal Party candidate Ernest Young.
The last PM who did that was Labour's own Ramsay McDonald.
Singer Jim Kerr described it as 'fantastic' while everyone from the Beatles to Ramsay McDonald have lain their heads here.
We went around the Houses of Parliament with Ramsay McDonald and Mr Baldwin.
1924 Ramsay McDonald took office as Britain's first Labour Prime Minister
``The National Government (headed by Ramsay McDonald) was pushing the India Act through Parliament.
He is full of interesting apercus about people and styles: John Summerson's monograph on John Nash of 1935 "signalled a revival of interest in the informal planning of the Regency', while 'Smart London hostesses picked tip the fashion for Modernism', as in Oliver Hill's Gayfere House, Westminster, for Lord Mount Temple, Ramsay McDonald's Minister of Transport, whose wife commissioned the decor of the entrance hall with its laminated shell-pink myrtle wood and its peach-coloured mirror on the ceiling.
In fact she was among the first wave of "Flapper voters" who swept Labour Prime Minister Ramsay McDonald to power in 1929.
The then Prime Minister, Ramsay McDonald, described it as: "the most magnificent and moving spectacle I have ever seen".
But they conveniently fail to mention what went before: Churchill would have abandoned his principles by staying with the Liberals when, in January 1924, they embraced collectivism and struck a deal with the Socialists to bring Ramsay McDonald and the Labor Party to power.