When only

random error occurs the least-squares adjustment will yield acceptable and sensible results, as being the most likely solution, whereas robust estimators will give suboptimal values very close to that of least-squares thus reinforcing their validity.

(a) Pre-Test trials: To establish that the three groups were well-matched before participating in the Experimental block, we analyzed the Pre-Test data in two analyses of variance (ANOVA), one for constant error and one for

random error, with "group" included as a between-group variable and "distance" included as a within-group variable.

Since the

random error set results are so similar, only the common set results are presented in Figure 1.

where [[beta].sub.i] is the regression coefficient for country i from Table 2, [[pi].sub.i] is the average rate of inflation, [CV.sub.i], is the coefficient of variation for the inflation and [u.sub.i] is a

random error term.

where [r.sub.ij], the

random error in the jth subject' s response to the ith item, is assumed.

The standard deviation of the

random error in the aggregate supply function 2 is assumed to be 0.75 percent at a quarterly rate.

One part is normally distributed and captures

random error. Thus, it can have either a positive or a negative impact on cost.

It is usual to assume that, for motivated participants, the magnitude of the

random error is beyond voluntary control.

Meanwhile,

random error of the impedance magnitude (Fig.

This reconfigured code at minimal noise environment corrects only one

random error and multiple

random errors at high noise environment.

The phases of the ghost echo are uncorrelated with the true return signal so their effect will be to increase the

random error in the velocity estimate at each gate; this may occur over several neighboring gates but these

random errors should not introduce any bias as the ghost echoes decorrelate between successive pulse pairs.

There's

random error in student test scores; there's random variation in the particular group of teachers who complete a program in a given year; there's random variation in where those teachers end up working; and there's random variation in how responsive their students are.