Raphael Santi

Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.

Raphael Santi


Raphael Sanzio,

Ital. Raffaello Santi or Raffaello Sanzio (räf'fäĕl`lō sän`tē, sän`tsyō), 1483–1520, major Italian Renaissance painter, b. Urbino. In Raphael's work is the clearest expression of the exquisite harmony and balance of High Renaissance composition.

Early Training, Influence, and Work

Raphael's father, Giovanni Santi, painter at the court of Federigo Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, first taught him the elements of art. About six years after the death of his father (1494) he entered the workshop of PeruginoPerugino
, c.1445–1523?, Umbrian painter, b. near Perugia. His real name was Pietro di Cristoforo Vannucci. Perugino is, after Raphael, the greatest painter of the Umbrian school.
..... Click the link for more information.
, whose influence is seen in The Crucifixion and The Knight's Dream (both: National Gall., London); Coronation of the Virgin (Vatican); The Three Graces (Chantilly); and the Sposalizio (Brera, Milan). The Colonna altarpiece, representing the Madonna and Saints (Metropolitan Mus.), marks the end of the Perugian period of his work.

The five predella scenes, Agony in the Garden (Metropolitan Mus.), St. Anthony of Padua and St. Francis (both: Dulwich), Procession to Calvary (National Gall., London), and Pietà (Gardner Mus., Boston), give evidence of the new influences of Leonardo, Michelangelo, Masaccio, and, especially, Fra Bartolommeo. Studying the intricacies of anatomy, perspective, and coloring, he achieved a freer, more able, and deeper interpretation than was seen in his earlier work. In Florence (1504–8) he produced numerous Madonnas that are renowned for their sweetness of expression. His self-portrait (Uffizi) and the penetrating portraits of Angelo and Maddalena Doni (Pitti Palace) are also from this period.

Mature Work

At Rome his style matured, benefiting from Michelangelo's influence. In the Vatican, Raphael was wholly responsible for the Stanza della Segnatura (finished 1511); the two largest walls represent, respectively, the School of Athens, portraying the Greek philosophers, and the Triumph of Religion, also called Disputà. On the vault are The Flaying of Marsyas and The Temptation of Eve. The ceiling is devoted to the allegorical figures Law, Philosophy, Poetry, and Theology. Two large lunettes over the windows represent Parnassus and Jurisprudence.

In the Stanza d'Eliodoro Raphael painted (1511–14) The Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple, The Miracle of Bolsena, The Repulse of Attila from Rome by Leo I, and The Deliverance of St. Peter. He also designed the Incendio del Borgo and painted part of it. Other designs for the Vatican include The Battle of Ostia, The Oath of Leo III before Charlemagne, and The Victory of Constantine over Maxentius; the 52 religious subjects covering one ceiling and known as "Raphael's Bible" were executed by his pupils after his design.

Among the other paintings of his Roman period are the Madonna with the Fish (Prado); Madonna of the Chair (Pitti Palace); the Sistine Madonna (Dresden); Galatea (Farnesina); the Alba Madonna (National Gall. of Art, Washington, D.C.); and the unfinished Transfiguration, completed by Giulio Romano. Portraits of that period include Julius II, long his patron; Baldassare Castiglione (Louvre); Tommaso Inghirami (Gardner Mus., Boston); and Pope Leo X with Two Cardinals.

Other Works and Accomplishments

Having been named (1514) successor to Bramante as chief architect of the Vatican, Raphael also designed a number of churches, palaces, and mansions. For his patron, Leo X, he undertook (1518) a survey of ancient Rome showing the chief monuments. He also designed ten tapestries with themes from the Acts of the Apostles for the Sistine Chapel (as well as two narrow tapestries used as borders); seven of the designs are in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Raphael was deeply indebted to the sculpture of antiquity for his mythological and biblical figures, and in his interpretation of classical art he achieved a harmony and monumentality emulated far into the 19th cent.


See his complete paintings, introd. by R. Cocke (1966) and complete works by M. Salmi et al. (1969); biographies by L. Berti (tr. 1961) and A. Forcellino (2012); studies by A. P. Oppé (rev. ed. 1970), J. Pope-Hennessy (1970), and L. Dussler (tr. 1971).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
Mentioned in ?
References in periodicals archive ?
And RAPHAEL SANTI, an Excellent Art colt, has shown sufficient promise in his two starts to suggest he should be capable of extending Ballydoyle's impressive strike-rate in this event.
CHARITY TOTE PICK 6 SELECTIONS 6 Raphael Santi 2.25 3 Princess Severus 3.00 8 When Not Iff 5 Sodashy 3.30 9 Suspect Device 4 Banimpire 4.00 5 Kirinda 4 Defining Year 4.35 5 High Ruler 3 Funatfuntasia 5.10 4 Boxer Beat 5 Mac Tiernan 7 Queen Commander Recommended perm; 64 lines at EUR1 a line, total stake EUR64 Kindly sponsored by Tote Ireland.
There was considerable pre-race chat about the winner, the Teofilobred Parish Hall, while odds-on favourite Raphael Santi was backed as if held in high enough esteem too.
Raphael Santi sets a reasonable standard and is the other pick.
Aidan O'Brien sends out his first juvenile runners of the campaign and, with his string clearly forward, it might be best to include Boris Grigoriev and Raphael Santi, both sired by 2007 St James's Palace Stakes hero Excellent Art.
of two-year-olds 105 QUICK off the mark as a juvenile himself, Excellent Art will be doubly represented in tomorrow's 5f maiden at the Curragh with Boris Grigoriev and Raphael Santi.