Raphanus


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Raphanus

 

a genus of herbaceous plants of the family Cru-ciferae. The sepals are erect, and the petals are yellow, white, pink, or violet. The fruit is a silique with a rostellum on top; upon ripening, the fruits of some species split into monosper-mous segments. There are eight species, distributed primarily in Europe but also in the non-European countries of the Mediterranean. Three or four species are found in the USSR, mainly along the coasts of the Black and Caspian seas. The wild radish (R. raphanistrum), an annual weed, is most often encountered among spring crops and on fallow lands (in the nonchernozem zone). The petals are yellow or, less commonly, white or violet. The wild radish is nectiferous. After its fruits ripen, the plant becomes harmful to farm animals. The seeds, which contain mustard oil, are poisonous to livestock.

The common radish (R. sativus) is widely cultivated, with varieties raised in vegetable gardens everywhere.

R. sativus var. sativus, a biennial vegetable plant, forms a root with a rosette of dissected leaves the first year and flower-bearing shoots and seeds the second year. The inflorescence is a raceme. The petals of the corolla are pink, violet, red, violet-red, or, less frequently, pale yellow. The fruit is an indehiscent silique. The variety is cross pollinated, primarily by bees. It is a cold-resistant hygrophyte. Its sprouts can tolerate a drop in temperature to -3°C, and its adult plants to -6°C. The optimum temperature for growth is 18°-20°C. The plant is grown throughout the USSR, but mainly in the central and northern regions. The roots contain, on the average, 1.58 percent sugar, 1.92 percent protein, and 1.55 percent cellulose; they also contain enzymes and 8.3–29 mg percent vitamin C. The roots may be eaten fresh.

The best radish varieties cultivated in the USSR are Graivo-ronskaia, Zimniaia Kruglaia Chernaia, Zimniaia Kruglaia Bel-aia, and Margelanskaia. The most suitable soils are fertile loams with a neutral pH. The seeds are sown in the spring (for use in the summer) and in the summer (for use in the autumn and winter). For winter storage the roots are gathered before autumn frosts. The average root yield is 200–300 quintals per hectare, and the average seed yield is 6–14 quintals per hectare.

REFERENCES

Agapov, S. P. Stolovye korneplody. Moscow, 1954.
Markov, V. M. Ovoshchevodstvo. Moscow, 1966.

V. A. ERSHOVA

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References in periodicals archive ?
In the present investigation, in-vitro antileishmanial potential of Raphanus caudatus was evaluated.
2011) using Solanum americanum extracts on Raphanus sativus seeds, observed that HL was not affected by the increase of extracts concentration.
cicla Pisum sativum Arveja Onward Raphanus sativus Vicia faba Haba Agua dulce Rosmarinus officinalis Lactuca sativa Lechuga Gallega Raphanus sativus Raphanus sativus Rabanito Punta Lactuca sativa- blanca Beta vulgaris Cichorium intybus Achicoria Fina Raphanus sativus de corte Beta vulgaris Remolacha Detroit Lactuca sativa- Dark Red Raphanus sativus Origanum vulgare Oregano Petroselinum Perejil Plantines Se asocia crispus a todas las Rosmarinus Romero comerciales especies officinalis Thymus vulgaris Tomillo
Promedios de los parametros biometricos estudiados a las plantas de Raphanus sativus para los diferentes tratamientos Tratamientos Area foliar Peso seco (cm2) DE (g) DE T1 1231,75b 883.
Reproductive biology of petal color variants in wild populations of Raphanus sativus: I.
Eruca sativa es una especie muy semejante a Raphanus raphanistrum debido al color de la flor, ambas presentan nervaduras en los petalos, estas especies se pueden distinguir porque el fruto de E.
The Greek name for the radish genus, Raphanus, means "quickly appearing," which perfectly describes their reputation for being the first vegetable to sprout in a spring garden.
1999, "Utilization of organic substrates by vermiculture biotechnology for the growth of Raphanus sativus L.
1985, "Vacuolar localization of 1-sinapylglucose: L-malate sinapoyltransferase in protoplasts from cotyledons of Raphanus sativus," Planta, 163, pp.
japonicus Linaria japonica Lonicera japonica Metaplexis japonica Oxalis corniculata Paederia scandens Raphanus sativus var.
Evers (1968) listed this species (as Hyadaphis pseudobrassicae Davis) on Brassica oleracea and Raphanus sativus.