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Related to Rational inference: reasonableness, deductive reasoning


1. any process of reasoning from premises to a conclusion
2. Logic the specific mode of reasoning used
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the mental activity that makes a connection between disparate thoughts, linking them in a set of premises and conclusions. It is by inference that the norms and categories of such connections, which are inherently present in the social or individual consciousness, are expressed on the level of “inner speech.” Indeed, these norms and categories themselves—in any given instance—constitute the psychological basis of inference; when they coincide with the rules and laws of logic, the inference is judged by its result to be equivalent to logical deduction, although generally speaking there is a qualitative difference between logical deduction and inference.

Logical deduction, as distinct from inference, rests on “external means”; it operates through the verbal (symbolic) recording of thoughts or through their formalization—that is, the codification of thoughts and representation of their connections by one or another formal language or system, such as calculus—with the goal of reducing to a minimum the subconscious, enthymematic, and elliptical elements of deduction and translating abstract or “convoluted” thought processes into the language of “images.” Furthermore, the “legitimacy” of inference need not necessarily be determined by logical norms. For example, an incomplete induction is precisely an inference and not a logical deduction, inasmuch as the connection between premises and conclusions in induction has a factual and psychological basis (as expressed in the well-known norms of generalization) but lacks a logical basis—that is, lacks those formal rules by which thinking proceeds from the particular to the general.

A further distinction is drawn between inference and reasoning: the latter is always a consciously willed mental activity, while an inference, in principle at least, can be both involuntary and an act of the subconscious.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The logical process by which new facts are derived from known facts by the application of inference rules.

See also symbolic inference, type inference.
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (

inference engine

An inference engine makes a decision from the facts and rules contained in the knowledge base of an expert system or the algorithm derived from a deep learning AI system. The inference engine is the processing component in contrast to the fact gathering or learning side of the system.

In years past, the inference engine referred to software-only expert systems. Today, there are specialized chips for executing in parallel the enormous number of calculations in a neural network, which is the primary AI architecture. See neural network, deep learning and expert system.
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References in periodicals archive ?
This difference arises from the driver's rational inference: he knows that men wearing suits are statistically less likely to assault him, even if they are also black.
Victor Reppert breaks down Lewis's "argument from reason" into six arguments: intentionality, truth, mental causation, psychological relevance of logical laws, unity of consciousness in rational inference, and reliability of our rational faculties.
But again it seems to me that he has ample resources to answer it if he returns to the important idea that rational inference must be explanatory.
How this impacts rational inference is a bit harder to explain, but involves, at least partly, the thesis that abstract concepts are largely metaphorical--that certain domains of concepts "map onto" other domains, and in so doing inherit the inferential structure of the original domain.
As the court has held previously, Hudson wrote, the stop "must be based on specific and articulable facts, as well as the rational inferences from those facts, as viewed through the eyes of a reasonable, cautious officer, guided by his experience and training." <br />The court believes the standard was met here.
In fact, it is now recognised that we must assume not only that each player is rational in the rational choice sense, but also that they each have common knowledge of rationality (that is, each knows that each is rational and knows that each knows that each knows that each is rational, and so on) and that each holds commonly aligned beliefs about what are rational inferences from any datum like a game.