in Russia.

(1) The central institution in Moscow for exercising control over urban merchants and artisans. The institution was called the Ratusha from Feb. 7, 1699, having been established on Jan. 30, 1699, as the Burmisterskaia Palata. The Ratusha consisted of a president and Ylburmistry elected by the merchants. It was abolished with the creation of the Chief Magistracy in 1720.

(2) The designation of the Magistrat from 1727 to 1743 and the building that housed the Magistrat from 1721.

(3) A judicial organ in the posad (merchants’ and artisans’ quarter), created in accordance with the Regulations Concerning the Provinces of 1775, which remained in existence until the judicial reform of 1864.

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Both poems were published in popular "Ratusha" newspaper in Lviv, with 'Epos' making its way to Ukrainian Guinness book.
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The Tatar ratusha (municipal board) of Kazan, meanwhile, had arbitrated matters in accordance with state-approved versions of Islamic jurisprudence since the 1780s.
The first two buildings within the St Petersburg Neva Town Hall (Nevskaya Ratusha) centre are now tenant ready, marking a key stage of a major regeneration project.