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In answer to these questions, we shall first examine the meaning of "hope" in the Christian tradition and its specific adaptation by Mandelstam and Ratushinskaya to the struggles of their autobiographies.
For her successor, Ratushinskaya, the word "hope" also appears in the title of her prison memoirs, but in a paradoxical sense by which the gray of the concentration camp uniforms becomes the means of providing hope in a politically hopeless situation.
Ratushinskaya's poetry from before her imprisonment employed much Christian religious imagery and concerned matters of love, creativity, and her response to the beauty of nature.
I read prison memoirs by women, numerous enough to form a whole separate genre, most notably Irina Ratushinskaya's Grey is the Color of Hope (1988) and the Latvian writer, Helene Celmina's Soviet Women in Prisons (1985).
Then he swung hard, saying that he looked forward to the time "when a Mandelstam will no longer die in a camp, when a Pasternak will be able to go to Stockholm and collect his Nobel Prize, when a filmmaker such as Sergey Peredjanov will not be sentenced to five years of jail for being a homosexual, and when merely for marching in the wrong peace march and publishing in banned trade union publications the poetess Irina Ratushinskaya will not be condemned to seven years of hard labor to be followed by five years of internal exile."
So did two of the Italian poets, Giovanni Raboni and Aldo Gargani; the latter said he found Simon's words "banal and trite." Flushed, Federenko called Simon's statement an "intervention." But neither he nor any of the Soviet delegates addressed themselves to the fate of Ratushinskaya.
He also pored over the work of other writers who had suffered, including Ngg wa Thiong'o from Kenya, who was forced into exile, Ken Saro-Wiwa, who was hanged in Nigeria in 1995, South African anti-apartheid activist Dennis Brutus and the Russian dissident Irina Ratushinskaya. He was able to draw on personal experience, having been locked up in Nigeria where, he says, "the justice system is not something that runs as well as it ought to".
During Lent 1986, he locked himself up in a replica prison cell for 46 days on behalf of imprisoned Russian poet, Irina Ratushinskaya.
Ratushinskaya's novel is often absorbing and entertaining.
The Russian poet Irina Ratushinskaya, writing about the labour camps in her memoir, Grey is the Colour of Hope, stated: `If you allow hatred to take root ...
Also taking part will be Russian poet Irina Ratushinskaya, who spent four years in Soviet concentration camps during the 1980s.
Six days of the summer at Caux were devoted to a conference on `The life of faith', which was addressed by the Russian poet Irina Ratushinskaya. She told the conference why she had felt closer to God in a Soviet labour camp than she did in freedom in the West.