Born Aug. 30, 1844, in Karlsruhe; died Aug. 9, 1904, in Ammerland, near Starnberger See. German geographer, ethnographer, and sociologist. Professor at the University of Leipzig (from 1886). One of the founders of the school of human geography.
Ratzel’s main works dealt with the relationship between man and his natural environment. His mistaken conception about the determining influence of nature on culture and sociopolitical relations had an important influence on the formation of geopolitcs. Ratzel based his work in general geography on his travels in southern Europe and North America.
WORKSAnthropogeographie, vol. 1, 4th ed. Stuttgart, 1921. Vol. 2, 3rd ed.: Stuttgart, 1922.
Politische Geographie, 3rd ed. Munich-Berlin, 1923.
In Russian translation:
Narodovedenie, vols. 1–2. St. Petersburg, 1900–01.
Zemlia izhizn’, vols. 1–2. St. Petersburg, 1903–06.