The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a family of Estonian artists.

Kristjan Raud. Born Oct. 10 (22), 1865, in Viru-Jagupi; died May 19, 1943, in Tallinn. Graphic artist.

Raud attended the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts from 1892 to 1897 and the Düsseldorf Academy of Arts in 1897 and 1898. He also studied in Munich between 1899 and 1903 at A. Ažbé’s school at the Academy of Arts. From roughly 1905 to 1914, Raud directed an art studio in Tartu, which he had organized himself. He taught at the Tallinn School of Industrial Arts from 1923 to 1926.

In the 1890’s, Raud executed a number of genre studies and sketches of scenes from the life of the Estonian peasants (for example, In the Hut, 1896–98). He later was influenced by art nouveau and symbolism. Employing stylistic elements from Estonian folk wood carving, Raud developed a distinctive style of drawing that was expressive and monumental in effect (for example, the drawings based on the Estonian epic Kalevipoeg; published in 1935).

Paul Raud. Born Oct. 11 (23), 1865, in Viru-Jagupi; died Nov. 22, 1930, in Tallinn. Painter. Twin brother of K. Raud.

From 1888 to 1894, Raud attended the Academy of Arts in Düsseldorf, where his instructors included P. Janssen, H. Kroll, and E. von Gebhardt. He also studied in St. Petersburg under I. E. Repin in 1911. In 1923 he became a teacher at the Tallinn School of Industrial Arts.

Raud primarily painted formal portraits in the academic style (for example, Portrait of N. Uex Küll, 1894). He also painted genre and landscape studies and ethnographically faithful group portraits of Estonian peasants (for example, Uncle Paul With a Pipe, 1894–96 [?]).

The works mentioned in this article are in the Art Museum of the Estonian SSR in Tallinn.


Mil’k, V. P. Raud. Moscow, 1957.
Kangro-Pool, R. K. Raud. Tallinn, 1961.
Hinnov, V. P. Raud. Tallinn, 1966.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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