Rauvolfia


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Rauvolfia

 

(also Rauwolfia), a genus of plants of the family Apocynaceae. The plants, which contain latex, include shrubs, subshrubs, and trees. The simple, entire, and often leathery leaves are usually in verticils of three to five. The flowers are in terminal or axillary inflorescences. The calyx is short and five-notched or five-parted; the corolla is tubular and has a five-lobed blade. There are five stamens, and the pistil has two carpels. The fruit consists of two drupes, one of which is usually rudimentary.

There are 40 to 50 species of Rauvolfia (according to other data, as many as 100), distributed in the tropics, except for those in Australia. R. serpentina, which grows in India, Burma, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia, is widely known. The underground organs of this plant and several other Rauvolfia species (for example, R. vomitoria in tropical Africa and R. tetraphylla in tropical America) contain more than 20 alkaloids, the most significant of which are reserpine, rescinnamine, yohimbine, ajmaline, and serpentine. Reserpine is used as a sedative and to lower arterial pressure; ajmaline is used as an antiarrhythmic. The alkaloids are used in the preparation of gendon.

REFERENCES

Atlas lekarstvennykh rastenii SSSR. Moscow, 1962.
Rao, A. S. A Revision of Rauvolfia With Particular Reference to the American Species. Ann Arbor, Mich. 1957.

M. E. KIRPICHNIKOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Rauvolfia tetraphylla es la especie mas comun del genero y en el N de Centroamerica se puede reconocer con facilidad por sus hojas dispuestas en verticilos tetrameros.
Ecology and biology.--Adults in February to April (Sjostedt 1909); feeds on poisonous plants e.g., Rauvolfia. Forms cluster of nymphs on food plants.
The synergistic effect of auxin and cytokinin has been demonstrated in several medicinal plants viz., Santolina canescens (Cascado et al., 2002) [5], Rauvolfia tetraphylla (Faisal and Anis, 2002) [6], Bupleurum fruticosum (Fraternale et al., 2002) [7] and Rotula aquatica (Martin, 2003) [8].
Other medicinal and aromatic plants commonly found in Nepal include swertia (Chiraito), Malabar nut (Asuro), jimbu, rudrachhe, cardamom, Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), rauvolfia root (sarpagandga), Picrocarpus santalinus Linn (Ractachandan), Taxus baccata (Lothsalla), tejpat (Indian bay leaf), Butea frondasa (Amala), and Acacia calechu (Khair), and possess high commercial value.
Evers (1968) listed this species on Acalypha wilkesiana, Ageratum conyzoides, Baltimora recta, Aristolochia grandiflora, Blechum pyramidatum, Capsicum annuum, Cecropia hondurensis, Chaptalia nutans, Cordia dentata, Cucumis sativus, Erechtites hieraciifolius, Guazuma ulmifolia, Gynura aurantiaca, Hamelia patens, Hampea stipitata, Hibiscus rosasinensis, Ixora coccinea, Malachra fasciata, Momordica charantia, Musa sapientum, Piper sp., Portulaca oleraceae, Priva lappulacea, Rauvolfia tetraphylla, Sphagneticola trilobata, Sida acuta, Solanum verbascifolium, Solanum hirsutum, Solanum nigrum, Teucrium inflatum, Urera sp.
pyramidata, Phyla scaberrima, Rauvolfia tetraphylla, Sida sp., Tournefortia hirsutissima, Varronia globosa ssp.
Not rated 3 Pseuderanthemum ludovicianum Not rated 4 Polyalthia suavolens Not rated 5 Annonidium mannii Not rated 6 Xylopia aethiopica Not rated 7 Cleistopholis glauca Not rated 8 Xylopia chrysophylla Not rated 9 Alstonia bonei Not rated 10 Clitandra cymulosa Not rated 11 Rauvolfia mannii Not rated 12 Ancylobotrys pyriformis Not rated 13 Holarrhena floribunda Not rated 14 Hunteria congolana Not rated 15 Landolphia mannii Not rated 16 Landolphia violacea Not rated 17 Saba florida Not rated 18 Strophantus sarmentosus Not rated 19 Culcacia sp.
Comparative leaf micro-morphological characters of the Nigerian species of Rauvolfia Linn.(Apocynaceae).
This gradient, which segregates sites with Casearia arborea and Pourouma bicolor from those with Warszewiczia coccinea, Virola sebifera, Rauvolfia purpurascens, and Dussia macroprophyllata (Fig.
Rauvolfia javanica is important in a different way.
in mice: ethanol extracts of leaves of Casimiroa edulis [105] and Cnidoscolus chayamansa [106], ethanol extracts of aerial parts of Moussonia deppeana [107], Equisetum hyemale [93], and Ruta chalepensis [108], as well as methanol extracts of leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides [109] and Rauvolfia tetraphylla [110].