To observe GWs up to ~100 km, DEEPWAVE utilized three new instruments built specifically for the National Science Foundation (NSF)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Gulfstream V (GV): a Rayleigh lidar, a sodium resonance lidar, and an advanced mesosphere temperature mapper.
The GV also carried three new instruments designed specifically to address DEEPWAVE science goals: 1) a Rayleigh lidar measuring densities and temperatures from ~20 to 60 km, 2) a sodium resonance lidar measuring sodium densities and temperatures from ~75 to 100 km, and 3) an advanced mesosphere temperature mapper (AMTM) measuring temperatures in a horizontal plane at ~87 km with a field of view (FOV) of-120 km along track and 80 km cross track.
Additional instruments in the lee of the Southern Alps included 1) a ground-based AMTM measuring the horizontal temperature structure at ~87 km, 2) a Rayleigh lidar measuring temperatures from ~22 to 85 km, 3) two all-sky airglow imagers (ASIs) measuring airglow brightness at several altitudes from ~87 to 96 km, and 4) a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) measuring winds and temperatures centered near ~87 and 96 km.
Rayleigh lidar temperatures are shown together with perturbation temperature contours from the ECMWF IFS that contributed significantly to DEEPWAVE flight planning and were interpolated to the GV location in space and time for this comparison.
This reveals the same [[lambda].sub.h] ~ 200-300-km MW seen by the Rayleigh lidar and multiple additional MWs and other GWs at smaller horizontal wavelengths, [[lambda].sub.h] ~ 30-80 km, at -87 km.
9), Rayleigh lidar temperature measurements again reveal surprising agreement in the GW spatial structures and refraction with altitude with the changing environment.
Carswell, 1994: Rayleigh lidar observations of thermal structure and gravity wave activity in the high Arctic during a stratospheric warming.
Instrument Variable Altitude GV instruments Avionics/GPS (x, y, z), (U, V, W) FL Gust probe u, v, w at 25 Hz FL 279 dropsondes [V.sub.h](Z), q(z), T(z) FL-ground MTP T(z) FL [+ or -] ~5km Rayleigh lidar [rho](z).