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town (1991 pop. 3,130), S Alta., Canada, SE of Lethbridge, in a sugar beet area. Sugar is refined and honey is produced there. A provincial agricultural college is in the town.


c.1140–1187, count of Tripoli (1152–87), great-great-grandson of Raymond IV of Toulouse. He played a leading part in the last years of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Captured (1164) by the Muslims, he was released c.1173 and became (1174) regent for King Baldwin IVBaldwin IV
(Baldwin the Leper), c.1161–1185, Latin king of Jerusalem (1174–85), son and successor of Amalric I. Raymond, count of Tripoli, was regent from 1174 to 1176.
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 of Jerusalem. He gave up that post in 1176, but in 1183 was appointed regent for Baldwin V. Leading the baronial faction in the kingdom, Raymond opposed Guy of LusignanGuy of Lusignan
, d. 1194, Latin king of Jerusalem (1186–92) and Cyprus (1192–94), second husband of Sibylla, sister of King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem. In 1183 he was briefly regent for his brother-in-law, who was incapacitated by leprosy, but Baldwin made Guy's
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, who became king at the death (1186) of Baldwin, and he even entered into an alliance with SaladinSaladin
, Arabic Salah ad-Din, 1137?–1193, Muslim warrior and Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, the great opponent of the Crusaders, b. Mesopotamia, of Kurdish descent.
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. However, in 1187 he became reconciled with Guy and valiantly led the Christians in the battle of Hattin. Saladin was victorious, and the Kingdom of Jerusalem soon fell entirely into the hands of the Muslims. Raymond died at Tyre soon after the battle.


See M. W. Baldwin, Raymond III of Tripolis and the Fall of Jerusalem (1936).


(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

Raymond Lodge was the son of psychical researcher and world famous physicist Sir Oliver Lodge. He became the subject of a book by his father, titled simply Raymond. The book dealt with the apparent spirit return of Raymond after he was killed in World War I. It is regarded as one of the best-attested cases of spirit identity.

On August 8, 1915, the medium Leonore Piper had Richard Hodgson, the deceased psychical researcher, communicating through her. Hodgson said, “Now, Lodge, while we are not here as of old, i.e., not quite, we are here enough to give and take messages. [Frederick] Myers says you take the part of the poet, and he will act as Faunus. Faunus. Myers. Protect: he will understand. What have you to say, Lodge? Good work. Ask (Margaret) Verrall, she will also understand. Arthur says so.”

According to Nandor Fodor, “The message reached Sir Oliver Lodge in early September, 1915. On September 17, the War Office notified him that his son Raymond had been killed in action on September 14. Before this blow fell, Sir Oliver Lodge wrote to Mrs. Verrall, a well known classical scholar, and asked her, ‘Does the poet and Faunus mean anything to you? Did one protect the other?’ She replied at once that ‘The reference is to Horace’s account of his narrow escape from death, from a falling tree, which he ascribes to the intervention of Faunus … As bearing on your terrible loss, the meaning seems to be that the blow would fall, but would not crush; it would be ‘lightened’ by the assurance conveyed afresh to you by a special message from the still living Myers, that your boy still lives,'"

Raymond’s mother, Lady Lodge, had a sitting with Gladys Osborne Leonard on September 25. Raymond contacted her and said, “Tell Father I have met some friends of his.” He mentioned Myers, among others. Two days later another medium, Alfred Vout Peters, spoke of a photograph of a group of officers, with Raymond among them. A Mrs. Cheves—a complete stranger to the Lodges—wrote to say that she had a photograph of the officers of the South Lancashire Regiment, to which Raymond belonged. On December 3, Mrs. Leonard gave a full description of the photograph, describing exactly where Raymond was in it (he was described as sitting on the ground with another officer’s hand on his shoulder). The photograph arrived on December 7 and was exactly as described.

A variety of other messages came from a number of different mediums. There was also cross correspondence on the Faunus issue. Sir Oliver Lodge included all the evidence in his book, which has become a classic of Spiritualism. In it Lodge wrote, “My conclusion has been gradually forming itself for years, though, undoubtedly, it is based on experience of the same sort of thing. But this event has strengthened and liberated my testimony. It can now be associated with a private experience of my own instead of with the private experience of others.”


Doyle, Sir Arthur Conan: The History of Spiritualism. New York: Doran, 1926
Fodor, Nandor: Encyclopedia of Psychic Science. London: Arthurs Press, 1933
Lodge, Sir Oliver: Raymond, or Life and Death with Examples of the Evidence for Survival of Memory and Affection After Death. London: Methuen, 1916
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