(redirected from Raznochinets)



in Russia in the 18th and 19th centuries, a category of the population consisting of individuals who did not belong to a particular class, or estate. It included members of the clergy, merchant class, petite bourgeoisie, peasantry, minor officials, and impoverished noblemen who had received an education and had left their former social milieu. The razno-chintsy stratum emerged because of the development of capitalism, which created a large demand for educated specialists.

From the 1840’s on, the raznochintsy had a considerable influence on the development of culture and society, and after the abolition of serfdom they were the main social stratum out of which the bourgeois intelligentsia arose. The democrats among the raznochintsy, who had produced a number of outstanding leaders of the emancipation movement (V. G. Belin-skii, the Petrashevtsy) before the peasant reform of 1861, played a prominent role in the post-reform revolutionary movement (revolutionary democrats; Narodniks, or populists). V. I. Lenin called the bourgeois-democratic stage of the liberation struggle in Russia, lasting from about 1861 to 1895, the raznochintsy stage (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 25, p. 93).


Shtrange, M. M. Demokraticheskaia intelligentsiia ν Rossii ν XVIII v. Moscow, 1965.
Leikina-Svirskaia, V. R. Intelligentsiia ν Rossii vo vtoroi polovine XIX veka. Moscow, 1971.
Vul’fson, G. N. Raznochinno-demokraticheskoe dvizhenie ν Povolzh’e i na Urale ν gody pervoi revoliutsionnoi situatsii. [Kazan] 1974. Chapter 2.
References in periodicals archive ?
Histories of the Russian intelligentsia have long focused on two core types of post-1861 intellectual: the "penitent nobleman," or son of a wealthy or noble family, who turned his back on privilege, often out of a sense of guilt, to devote his life to saving the Russian people; and the Orthodox clergyman's son or raznochinets who, as a rural dweller and a recipient of a Russian Orthodox education, saw himself as closer to the Russian people than the nobly born intellectual (intelligent) and better able to speak on their behalf.
The idea of the raznochinets as isolated both from society and from love due to lack of ease in social settings, was very common in the literature of the early 19th-century.
While many British publishers seem reluctant to include any Cyrillic, in this book a number of terms, such as raznochinets and zaum' are given in Cyrillic only, without translation or explanation.