Students were drawn almost entirely from the diverse middle social stratum known in Russia as the raznochintsy
. At the time, there were quotas limiting Jewish enrollment in high school and higher education, but Jewish doctors with service to the state were entitled to the same rank as non-Jews and were not prohibited from practicing in Saint Petersburg or Moscow.
From the literary criticism of the raznochintsy
, in the 1840s, emerged a new understanding of society and the way individuals participate in it (220), according to which self-realized, active individuals must devote themselves to critical work on their surroundings.
This monograph takes a comprehensive approach to the role of the "new people" (the raznochintsy
without deep connections to native history and culture) in literary and philosophical texts, from N.
Yes, Chatsky was not born poor like Molchalin, but it was not uncommon for men of higher social status to mimic the so-called awkward manners of the raznochintsy
in order to demonstrate political allegiance with the often more radical men of lower social origins.
Maybe it would snow, a white landscape would be an appropriate background for the event, highlighted by my dark, but not entirely black, slightly old-fashioned clothes--this would remind Maria Petrovna slightly of the raznochintsy
, those members of the Russian non-bourgeoisie intelligentsia in the nineteenth century, I hoped.
One can point, in support of this thesis, to the ecclesiastical influences on Uspenskii (his father and uncles and he himself were educated in seminaries, and his uncles became priests) and to the general prominence of men from a similar background among the raznochintsy
, the dominant force in the radical intelligentsia in the age of Alexander II (1855-81).
"[After the Crimean War,] there was a marked shift in the social composition of the student body in the universities....[I]t came to be made up more and more of so-called raznochintsy
, 'people of diverse rank': sons of clergymen, peasants, petty officials, army officers, artisans, and tradesmen who had become divorced by virtue of their education or inclination from their fathers' social station and could no longer fit into the official estate system." (15) In a manner that Szamuely finds "very understandable," instead of feeling gratitude for the opportunity for upper mobility the "student-ranzochinets brought with him a deep sense of the injustices of Russian life...
Finally, Wirtschafter's work builds on her two previous books dealing with the Russian army and the raznochintsy
-- the so-called people of various ranks.
Aleksandr Kupriianov sees indications, in diaries from mid-19th-century provincial towns, of a new concern with "individual, intimate feelings." (6) Laurie Manchester argues that secularized sons of clergymen in the 19th century became '"modern in that they were self-reliant agents of their own destiny." (7) Boris Mironov considers, in a broader way, when Russians came to embrace the notion of the "autonomous and independent personality." What he finds is that "among nobles and raznochintsy
this occurred in the late 18th to early 19th centuries; among various strata of the urban estate, over the course of the 19th century; and among the peasants, after the emancipation." (8)
Participants in Land and Freedom regarded dissenting faiths as the true forms of popular religiosity; hence they believed that all ordinary Russians, from peasants and soldiers to merchants and raznochintsy
wished for freedom of confession.
Richard Wortman, "Review of A Parting of Ways: Government and the Educated Public in Russia, 1801-1855," Journal of Modern History 50, 1 (1978): 176-78; Elise Kimerling Wirtschafter, "The Groups Between: Raznochintsy
, Intelligentsia, Professionals," in Cambridge History of Russia, 2:245-64, 255.
This allows the to combine the Russian nobility with the "peopie of various ranks" (raznochintsy
) in discussing 18th-century society (79).