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(rĕd`ĭng), borough and unitary authority (1991 pop. 194,727), S central England, on the Kennet River near its influx to the Thames. Reading, which was the seat of the former county of Berkshire, is a market center with iron founding, engineering, malting, brewing, and biscuit and seed industries. It was occupied in 871 by the Danes, who burned it in 1006. A gateway and ruins of buildings, surrounded by a public park, remain of a Benedictine abbey founded in 1121 by Henry I, who is buried there. Several parliaments met in the abbey. In 1643 the town surrendered to the parliamentarians under the 3d earl of Essex. There are a 15th-century grammar school, the Reading College of Technology, and the Univ. of Reading (1926; formerly a college, founded 1892, of the Univ. of Oxford). Oscar WildeWilde, Oscar
(Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde), 1854–1900, Irish author and wit, b. Dublin. He is most famous for his sophisticated, brilliantly witty plays, which were the first since the comedies of Sheridan and Goldsmith to have both dramatic and literary merit.
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's Ballad of Reading Gaol was inspired by his imprisonment there, and Reading is the Aldbrickham of Thomas HardyHardy, Thomas,
1840–1928, English novelist and poet, b. near Dorchester, one of the great English writers of the 19th cent.

The son of a stonemason, he derived a love of music from his father and a devotion to literature from his mother.
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's Jude the Obscure.


(rĕd`ĭng) 1 Town (1990 pop. 22,539), Middlesex co., NE Mass., a suburb of Boston; settled 1639, set off from Lynn and inc. 1644. Printing is the major industry. A 17th-century tavern is in Reading. 2 City (1990 pop. 12,038), Hamilton co., SW Ohio, a suburb of Cincinnati; platted 1798, inc. 1851. Chemicals are among its various manufactures.

3 City (1990 pop. 78,380), seat of Berks co., SE Pa., on the Schuylkill River, in the Pennsylvania Dutch region; laid out 1748, inc. as a city 1847. Once an important industrial, commercial, and railroad city, Reading has become a major factory outlet center. Its products include foods, specialty metals, crushed stone, detergents, machinery and manufacturing systems, and plastic parts. Industrial growth began in the late 18th cent. Reading was an early iron-producing town; cannons were made there during the American Revolution, and it was a Union ordnance center during the Civil War. The completion of the Philadelphia and Reading RR added to the city's economic growth, which was also spurred by the production of automobiles there in the early 1900s. Reading is the seat of Albright College, Alvernia Univ., and the Berks Campus of Pennsylvania State Univ. Also in the city are the county historical society, a museum, and a planetarium. Nearby points of interest include the birthplace of Daniel BooneBoone, Daniel,
1734–1820, American frontiersman, b. Oley (now Exeter) township, near Reading, Pa.

The Boones, English Quakers, left Pennsylvania in 1750 and settled (1751 or 1752) in the Yadkin valley of North Carolina.
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 (a state historic park) and the Pagoda, a Japanese-style observation tower on Mt. Penn.


process of mentally interpreting written symbols. Facility in reading is an essential factor in educational progress, and instruction in this basic skill is a primary purpose of elementary education. The ability to read was not considered important for most laymen until sometime after Johann Gutenberg's invention of the printing press (c.1450) and the Protestant Reformation, with its emphasis on individual interpretation of the Bible. Until that time reading was generally restricted to the clergy and certain members of the nobility. Although illiteracyilliteracy,
inability to meet a certain minimum criterion of reading and writing skill. Definition of Illiteracy

The exact nature of the criterion varies, so that illiteracy must be defined in each case before the term can be used in a meaningful way. In 1930 the U.
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 is still a problem in many areas of the world, compulsory childhood education laws have assured that most citizens of advanced industrial nations can read.

Physiological and psychological studies suggest that the process of reading is based on a succession of quick eye movements, known as fixations, across the written line, each of which lasts for about a quarter of a second. In each fixation more than one word is perceived and interpreted, so that a skilled reader may take in more than three words per fixation when reading easy material. Depending on the rate of fixations and the difficulty of the material, an adult can read and understand anywhere from 200 to 1,000 words per minute.

There has been considerable difference of opinion about the best method of teaching children to read. By the end of the 20th cent. the educational concensus was largely that a combination of phonics, which emphasizes sound, and the whole-language method, which emphasizes meaning, is the most effective way to teach the skill. Most educators also agree on the importance of remedial work for students whose progress is impeded by impaired vision, faulty eye movements, developmental disabilities such as dyslexiadyslexia
, in psychology, a developmental disability in reading or spelling, generally becoming evident in early schooling. To a dyslexic, letters and words may appear reversed, e.g., d seen as b or was seen as saw.
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, or personal handicaps resulting from poor teaching.


See G. Hildreth, Teaching Reading (1958); I. A. Richards, How to Read a Page (1959); G. Cuomo, Becoming a Better Reader (1960); H. Diack, Reading and the Psychology of Perception (1960); J. S. Chall, Learning to Read: The Great Debate (1967); M. Cox, The Challenge of Reading Failure (1968); M. J. Adler and C. Van Doren, How to Read a Book (rev. ed. 1972); M. C. Robeck and J. A. R. Wilson, Psychology of Reading (1974).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.


(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

A “reading” is material that is delivered to a sitter by a medium or a psychic. There are Spiritualist readings (sometimes referred to as “messages") and psychic readings. Either of these may be in the form of a private reading or a public reading. A Spiritualist private reading is one-on-one with the medium and usually allows the sitter to ask questions, give or ask for explanations (if necessary), and generally become more involved with the retrieval of the information. Public Spiritualist readings are more common, where the medium—often as a specific part of a Spiritualist church worship service—will stand on the platform and deliver messages to particular members of the congregation or audience. Here there is no opportunity for the recipient to ask questions. In both cases it may be necessary for the individual to follow up after the meeting to verify the information given.

Psychic readings are more generally private, with the psychic dealing with the past, present and probable future for the sitter. By definition these readings do not connect with spirit and the only way to gauge the accuracy of the future predictions is to wait and see. Some idea of the possible accuracy may be judged by what the psychic tells of the known past and present.

The National Spiritualist Association of Churches publishes a pamphlet titled Hints for a Good Reading. It offers the following advice for a reading from a Spiritualist medium.

  • 1: Try to put your mind at ease and relax before you seek a medium’s help. It creates a better atmosphere for the reading and makes it easier for spirit to make contact.
  • 2: Let the medium proceed in his or her own manner. Don’t expect your most pressing problems to be discussed at once.
  • 3: Spirit provides evidence of identity in different ways. It may be by name, description, relationships, incidents, etc. Be willing to verify such evidential information so the medium can proceed to any message that is to be given.
  • 4: Let the medium know when they are correct. Don’t attempt to confuse them. Be fair.
  • 5: Arguing or wanting things done your way makes it difficult for the medium to function effectively and may lead to failure.
  • 6: Something may make more sense by the end of the reading, or understanding of the message may come at a later time —after you have had a chance to think about it. So don’t be quick to say “No” to what is given by the medium.
  • 7: The true success of a reading is not always measured by prophecy but by the guidance it provides. Prediction is possible, but you have the power to change coming events.
  • 8: A good reading should explain the philosophy of harmonious living. Mediumship is not fortune-telling.
  • 9: If you wish to ask a question, or questions, meditate on them in advance of the meeting. Give spirit ample time to get an answer. No spirit claims to have an answer on the spur of the moment. After all, you are communicating with people.
  • 10: Don’t try to prolong a reading. The medium realizes when the forces are gone. You are always welcome to come again.


Faubel, Rita: Hints for a Good Reading. Lily Dale: NSAC, nd
The Spirit Book © 2006 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city in Great Britain, in Berkshire, on the Thames River at the influx of the Kennet River. Population, 132,000 (1971). Transportation junction. Reading is the trade center of an agricultural region. It has a large food industry and a machine-building industry, including the production of aviation, agricultural, and electrical engineering equipment and machinery for enterprises of the food industry. There is also a printing industry. Reading has a university founded in 1926. The city’s history dates back to the ninth century. Southwest of Reading is the Aldermaston nuclear research center.



a city in the northeastern USA, in Pennsylvania, on the Schuylkill River. Population, 82,000 (1974; 304,000 including suburbs). The manufacturing industry employs 56,000 (1973). Reading’s main industries include the ferrous metal and metalworking industries and the manufacturing of pipe, industrial equipment, and optical engineering items. There is also a knit-goods industry. Coal is mined nearby. Reading was founded in the first half of the 18thcentury.



in digital computers, the extraction of information from storage and the transmission of the information to other units of the computer. Reading is performed in most computer operations but sometimes constitutes an independent operation. The read process may be accompanied by the destruction, or erasing, of the contents of the storage cells or sections from which the information is read; such a destructive read may occur, for example, in the case of ferrite-core storage. Nondestructive reading is also possible—for example, in the case of magnetic tape or disk storage. In systems with nondestructive reading, once information is recorded it may be used many times. The read operation is characterized by the read time, which is the time required to deliver data from storage. Read times range from a few tens of nanoseconds to several microseconds. (See alsoRECORDING AND REPRODUCTION OF INFORMATION.)

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The indication shown by an instrument.
Observation of the readings of one or more instruments.
(cell and molecular biology)
A linear process by which amino acid sequences are recognized by the protein-synthesizing system of a cell from messenger ribonucleic codes.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. the form of a particular word or passage in a given text, esp where more than one version exists
2. Parliamentary procedure
a. the formal recital of the body or title of a bill in a legislative assembly in order to begin one of the stages of its passage
b. one of the three stages in the passage of a bill through a legislative assembly
3. the formal recital of something written, esp a will


1. a town in S England, in Reading unitary authority, Berkshire, on the River Thames: university (1892). Pop.: 232 662 (2001)
2. a unitary authority in S England, in Berkshire. Pop.: 144 100 (2003 est.). Area: 37 sq. km (14 sq. miles)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
I attempt to write in the manner of those whose writing I admire, through reading.
We find that young people who read more fiction tend to score more highly on reading tests.
At the same time, students reported spending only about 10 minutes per day on reading materials other than textbooks.
Self-selected reading is a method where students are exposed to reading for pleasure.
'A reading culture develops when entire communities encourage,
On the campaign website, players including Frank Lampard, Adam Lallana, Joey Barton and Boaz Myhill explain why they enjoy reading and reveal their favourite adult and children's books.
Reading Champions has recently announced the results of its annual School of the Year competition.
During reading lessons, Joe was allowed to choose the books he wanted to read.
Bayard's inquiry into the subject of reading takes its point of departure into the identification of three constraints that govern our interaction with books: the "obligation to read," which applies especially to canonical texts; the obligation to read thoroughly; and the tacit assumption that one must have read a book to talk about it with some precision (xiv).
For their book Reading Don't Fix No Chevys, Michael Smith and Jeffrey Wilhelm researched the historic aversion that male students have to reading.
Using the multicultural literature included in the program, the school saw writing scores improve, but not reading and math.
The design of the study included pre-, post-, and follow-up assessments of all students in reading and mathematics.

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