Real Presence


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Real Presence,

expression of the belief among certain Christians, especially Roman Catholics and some Anglicans, that the actual presence of the body and blood of Jesus is in the EucharistEucharist
[Gr.,=thanksgiving], Christian sacrament that repeats the action of Jesus at his last supper with his disciples, when he gave them bread, saying, "This is my body," and wine, saying, "This is my blood." (Mat. 26; Mark 14; Luke 22; 1 Cor. 11.
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. Saints Ignatius of AntiochIgnatius of Antioch, Saint
, d. c.107, bishop of Antioch and Christian martyr, called Theophorus [Gr.,= God-bearer]. He was probably a convert and a disciple of St. John the Evangelist.
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, Justin MartyrJustin Martyr, Saint,
c.A.D. 100–c.A.D. 165, Christian apologist, called also Justin the Philosopher. Born in Samaria of pagan parents, he studied philosophy, and after his conversion in Ephesus to Christianity at about the age of 38, he went from place to place trying to
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, and IrenaeusIrenaeus, Saint
, c.125–c.202, Greek theologian, bishop of Lyons, and one of the Fathers of the Church. Born in Asia Minor, he was a disciple of St. Polycarp. Irenaeus went to Rome to plead for leniency toward the Montanists (see Montanism) and for those Eastern Christians
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 wrote of the bread and wine of the Eucharist as the actual body and blood of Christ. In the 4th cent. the focus shifted to the substantial transformation of the elements; by the 7th cent. the idea that the bread and wine were transmuted or converted in substance to the body and blood of Christ was prevalent throughout Christendom. This transformation was the subject of controversy in the 9th and 11th cent., and a Roman Council of 1079 issued a statement declaring that the bread and wine are changed substantially through consecration. The Fourth Lateran Council (1215) again sanctioned belief in transubstantiation. The doctrine recieved its classic formulation in the writing of St. Thomas AquinasThomas Aquinas, Saint
[Lat.,=from Aquino], 1225–74, Italian philosopher and theologian, Doctor of the Church, known as the Angelic Doctor, b. Rocca Secca (near Naples).
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. The Council of TrentTrent, Council of,
1545–47, 1551–52, 1562–63, 19th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, convoked to meet the crisis of the Protestant Reformation.
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, confronted with Protestant challenges, especially from Ulrich ZwingliZwingli, Huldreich or Ulrich
, 1484–1531, Swiss Protestant reformer. Education of a Reformer
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 and John CalvinCalvin, John,
1509–64, French Protestant theologian of the Reformation, b. Noyon, Picardy. Early Life

Calvin early prepared for an ecclesiastical career; from 1523 to 1528 he studied in Paris.
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, issued an authoritative teaching upholding the doctrine of transubstantiation. For Protestant interpretations, see Lord's SupperLord's Supper,
Protestant rite commemorating the Last Supper. In the Reformation the leaders generally rejected the traditional belief in the sacrament as a sacrifice and as an invisible miracle of the actual changing of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ
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.
References in periodicals archive ?
Eucharistic adoration emerged from rather heated debates about the real presence back in the 11th century.
But it is through people that we experience her real presence. Being with family and friends makes her really present especially when we share time, talents and treasures with each other because of her.
Among all those Catholics who do not know what the church teaches regarding the real presence, two-thirds are in this type.
Although probably not yet articulating a notion of real presence that all traditions will accept fully, H.'s use of the notion of "transelementation" (metastoicheiosis, in patristic sources), characterized by him as compatible with formulations by Reformed writers Calvin, Vermigli, Bucer, and Cranmer, unquestionably makes progress in this direction.
I don't want to overreact but to state simply that some serious damage has been inflicted to the sacredness of the Real Presence of Christ in the consecrated Host.
Unfortunately, opposition to the Calvinists also increased, especially on the nature of the real presence of the body and blood of Jesus Christ in the Lord's Supper.
John Wyclif: Scriptural Logic, Real Presence and the Parameters of Orthodoxy.
Ananiashvili's pliant back and gorgeous arms are never better seen than in the slow solo performed at Solor and Gamzatti's betrothal, and Murphy's chilly hauteur, punctuated by flashes of hurt and fear, made her character a real presence rather than a cipher for virtuoso dancing.
This is why the early seventeenth-century Hamburg preacher Philip Nicolai argued that justification and the eucharist constituted the specific points of contact between man and God while Peter Lossius in the 1650s contended that the real presence of Christ in the works of creation is the starting point for his presence in the hearts of the faithful.
The ambivalent reaction of both the Catholic and Protestant faiths to the notion of real presence in church ritual meant that instead of an eradication of presence, the period of the Reformation witnessed a "migration" (3) of the sacred from theological institutions to other locations.
He turns as a result to the climate in which the document was copied: the new monastic reforms undertaken by the post-conquest Archbishop Lanfranc, who before coming to Canterbury had been engaged in a dispute over the 'real presence' with Berengar of Tours; and the new meditative practices of St Anselm.
Hoddle said: "Dean is big, strong and has a real presence on the field."