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(also, resuscitation), the measures taken to revive a person in a state of clinical death or to restore the functions of vital organs suddenly lost or impaired as a result of accident, disease, or complications.

Reanimation is studied by a new branch of medicine, reani-matology. As this field has developed, reanimative measures have come to include not only direct revival but also ways of controlling acute metabolic disturbances involving water and electrolytes and gas exchange disturbances, methods of combating acute circulatory, pulmonary, hepatic, and renal insufficiency, and ways of restoring impaired functions following surgery. Other terms often used in the sense of reanimation are “intensive therapy” and “intensive care,” but they are understood differently in various countries and by different specialists.

In reanimation, two factors are taken into account: the general principles of treating terminal states and clinical syndromes that threaten the life of a patient regardless of the etiology of the disease, and the nature of the pathological process. Various types of equipment are used, including electronic monitors, defibrillators, and electrostimulators, as well as drugs and such surgical techniques as tracheotomy and puncture and catheterization of major vessels. Such methods as closed cardiac massage and manual artificial respiration are used by medical personnel regardless of the physician’s or paramedical worker’s own specialty. These procedures are also carried out by specially trained persons in other occupations: rescue and highway squads and the police. First-aid personnel are also effective in reanimation since they are provided with specialized equipment and machines and are able to summon specially trained antishock, infarction, and toxicologic teams.

The full range of reanimation measures is provided in specialized departments and centers and in intensive care units. These facilities treat patients whose vital functions are impaired or are likely to be impaired because of brain injury, poisoning, severe burns, myocardial infarction, acute renal failure, or tetanus or following extensive operations. When departments providing reanimation treatment are based in cardiological, surgical, neurological, and other centers, they specialize in cardiology, toxicology, postoperative care, and respiratory or renal complications. When such departments are nonspecial-ized, they function in major oblast or city hospitals.


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Popova, L. M. “Organizatsiia lecheniia bol’nykh s rasstroistvom dykha-niia pri ostrom poliomielite.” Vestnik AMN SSSR, 1958, no. 7.
Negovskii, V. A. Ozhivlenie organizma i iskusstvennaia gipotermiia. Moscow, 1960.
Safar, P. “Closed Chest Cardiac Massage.” Anesthesia and Analgesia: Current Researches, 1961, vol. 40, no. 6.
Schwiete, W. M. “Wiederbelebung von 150 Jahren.” Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift, 1967, vol. 37, pp. 1689–93.


References in periodicals archive ?
Cost of total health-care and reanimation service were in the range of 18.
The course of the remaining patients was not followed after discharge or transfer from the reanimation unit.
It is estimated that the sales of tea will increase by 2 to 3% in the next three years owing to the reanimation of the new markets in east Germany.
L'enfant sera transfere dans un service de reanimation et de neonatalogie.
Multivectored suture suspension: A minimally invasive technique for reanimation of the paralyzed face.
Un enfant de trois ans a trouve la mort samedi et ses parents ont ete admis en reanimation a l'hopital Idrissi de Kenitra suite a une fuite de gaz butane, a-t-on appris de source medicale.
Blagoi Ivanov, the Bulgarian MMA fighter who was stabbed almost fatally in February, has been discharged from the reanimation department of Sofia's Priogov hospital.
In 1995, the dDepartment became part of the clinic for cardiac surgery and finally in 2005 it became part of the clinic for anesthesiology, reanimation and intensive care.
The primary goal of all facial reanimation protocols is to restore facial movement that is controlled, symmetrical and spontaneous," the authors write.
The book is in three sections: the corpse, ghosts, and reanimation of the dead.
SH FRINGE 15 This series with its X-Files overtones is about an FBI special agent who looks into deaths and disasters linked to strange phenomena such as teleportation, mind control and reanimation.
Chapters cover anatomy of the facial nerve, neurophysiology of the facial nerve and nerve regeneration, causes of facial palsy, testing of the facial nerve, Bell's palsy, facial palsy in infection, facial nerve in temporal bone fractures, iatrogenic injury of the facial nerve during surgery of chronic suppurative otitis media, facial nerve in the parotid gland, hemifacial spasms, syndromes associated with facial palsy, tumors causing facial palsy, plastic- surgical repair of the paralyzed face, facio-hypoglossal jump anastomoses for reanimation of the paralyzed face, and anesthesia for otologic surgery.