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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also, resuscitation), the measures taken to revive a person in a state of clinical death or to restore the functions of vital organs suddenly lost or impaired as a result of accident, disease, or complications.

Reanimation is studied by a new branch of medicine, reani-matology. As this field has developed, reanimative measures have come to include not only direct revival but also ways of controlling acute metabolic disturbances involving water and electrolytes and gas exchange disturbances, methods of combating acute circulatory, pulmonary, hepatic, and renal insufficiency, and ways of restoring impaired functions following surgery. Other terms often used in the sense of reanimation are “intensive therapy” and “intensive care,” but they are understood differently in various countries and by different specialists.

In reanimation, two factors are taken into account: the general principles of treating terminal states and clinical syndromes that threaten the life of a patient regardless of the etiology of the disease, and the nature of the pathological process. Various types of equipment are used, including electronic monitors, defibrillators, and electrostimulators, as well as drugs and such surgical techniques as tracheotomy and puncture and catheterization of major vessels. Such methods as closed cardiac massage and manual artificial respiration are used by medical personnel regardless of the physician’s or paramedical worker’s own specialty. These procedures are also carried out by specially trained persons in other occupations: rescue and highway squads and the police. First-aid personnel are also effective in reanimation since they are provided with specialized equipment and machines and are able to summon specially trained antishock, infarction, and toxicologic teams.

The full range of reanimation measures is provided in specialized departments and centers and in intensive care units. These facilities treat patients whose vital functions are impaired or are likely to be impaired because of brain injury, poisoning, severe burns, myocardial infarction, acute renal failure, or tetanus or following extensive operations. When departments providing reanimation treatment are based in cardiological, surgical, neurological, and other centers, they specialize in cardiology, toxicology, postoperative care, and respiratory or renal complications. When such departments are nonspecial-ized, they function in major oblast or city hospitals.


Gurevich, N. L. Fibrilliatsiia i defibrilliatsiia serdtsa. Moscow, 1957.
Popova, L. M. “Organizatsiia lecheniia bol’nykh s rasstroistvom dykha-niia pri ostrom poliomielite.” Vestnik AMN SSSR, 1958, no. 7.
Negovskii, V. A. Ozhivlenie organizma i iskusstvennaia gipotermiia. Moscow, 1960.
Safar, P. “Closed Chest Cardiac Massage.” Anesthesia and Analgesia: Current Researches, 1961, vol. 40, no. 6.
Schwiete, W. M. “Wiederbelebung von 150 Jahren.” Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift, 1967, vol. 37, pp. 1689–93.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In investigating the awareness of anesthesiology and reanimation specialists employed in our country regarding the prices of materials they use and the factors influencing their awareness of such, the mean percentage of accurate price estimation was 5.8% among all 30 items, while the mean percentages of underestimation and overestimation of price were 35.13% and 59.06%, respectively.
Among the topics are soft tissue reconstruction of the face and neck, ear reconstruction, reconstructing the midface, principles of evaluating and repairing facial fractures, mandible reconstruction, facial reanimation, eyelid and peri-orbital reconstruction, and cleft palate repair.
From them 3 people are in reanimation, 8 people are in toxicology department, 4 people are in burns department, and two victims are in traumatology department.
In the final essay of this triptych, Snyder returns to the theory proposed in 1952 that The Winter's Tale originally failed to include Hermione's reanimation and that Shakespeare deliberately altered the ending to accommodate new production demands (the influence of the masque and court spectacle; the acquisition of the Blackfriars; a royal performance for Princess Elizabeth's marriage in 1612-13).
His death is seen as preordained only in retrospect and his resurrection is viewed in a spiritual, nonphysical sense, not as bodily reanimation.
LINKIN PARK'S remix album is called Reanimation. To be released on July 30, it features reworked versions of songs from Hybrid Theory.
"Corpses in various states of decay and reanimation," Wright says, "regularly adorned the covers."
Un examen medical au scanner a revele que son etat etait stable, suite a quoi la patiente a ete orientee vers le service de reanimation pour des examens complementaires.
In accordance with the decision of the Executive Committee of Turkish Society of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation, the tenure of our editorial team, which has been in effect for the last 2 years and 12 issues, will end.
L'etablissement hospitalier universitaire (EHU) d'Oran entend lancer un service medical d'urgence et de reanimation (SMUR) a compter du mois de juin prochain, a indique, lundi dernier, le directeur de cette structure hospitaliere, Mohamed Mansouri, en marge d'une journee d'etude sur la prise en charge des AVC.
Topics of the 13 papers include management of the paralyzed brow, nerve substitutions in facial reconstruction, management of the upper eyelid complex, facial reanimation with free tissue transfer, and management of the nasal valve.