Reciprocity principle

Reciprocity principle

In the scientific sense, a theory that expresses various reciprocal relations for the behavior of some physical systems. Reciprocity applies to a physical system whose input and output can be interchanged without altering the response of the system to a given excitation. Optical, acoustical, electrical, and mechanical devices that operate equally well in either direction are reciprocal systems, whereas unidirectional devices violate reciprocity. The theory of reciprocity facilitates the evaluation of the performance of a physical system. If a system must operate equally well in two directions, there is no need to consider any nonreciprocal components when designing it.

Some systems that obey the reciprocity principle are any electrical network composed of resistances, inductances, capacitances, and ideal transformers; systems of antennas, which obey certain restrictions; mechanical gear systems; and light sources, lenses, and reflectors.

Devices that violate the theory of reciprocity are transistors, vacuum tubes, gyrators, and gyroscopic couplers. Any system that contains the above devices as components must also violate the reciprocity theory. The gyrator differs from the transistor and vacuum tube in that it is linear and passive, as opposed to the active and nonlinear character of the other two devices. See Transistor

References in periodicals archive ?
The report highlighted that the House interior committee was advised by a representative of the legal service regarding necessity of including the reciprocity principle as a prerequisite for the implementation of the law.
A decision by the Council of Ministers may decide preferential treatment for foreign investors in accordance with the reciprocity principle,' it said.
'Our objective is to at least be [on a] par with what we give to their products [as a] reciprocity principle. [We also want a] level playing field to what they give to [their] other trading partners,' Lopez added.
Fifth, safeguards national interest on cross-border use of digital economy and finance through the obligation of domestic processing for all onshore transactions and domestic partnership for all foreign players under the consideration of reciprocity principle.
This agreement is based on the reciprocity principle and expresses the genuine interest of both universities in exchanging students, Scholars, academic information and dual degree programs, in the hope and belief that such programs and international education at both institutions will be substantially enhanced.
In its letter to the Bishkek local council the Foreign Ministry of Kyrgyzstan said 33.371 ha of land will be provided for the Embassy of China in Kyrgyzstan based on reciprocity principle.
"We have announced our sanctions worth USD 533 million tariffs on 22 products on a reciprocity principle," Pekcan said.
If the US makes such a decision, Russia's response will be based on the reciprocity principle, Russian Presidential Spokesman said, TASS reported.
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Within the framework of the reciprocity principle, the restrictions on our visa regime for US citizens were lifted simultaneously," said a statement from the Turkish embassy in Washington D.C.
NNA - Moscow will use reciprocity principle in response to the US Treasury Department's sanctions against Chechen leader Ramzan Kadyrov and four other Russians, Kremlin Spokesman Dmitry Peskov told reporters on Thursday.
Medvedev said that the 18 countries from various regions were selected under the reciprocity principle.