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Related to Recovery: File recovery


1. Law
a. the obtaining of a right, etc., by the judgment of a court
b. (in the US) the final judgment or verdict in a case
2. Fencing a return to the position of guard after making an attack
3. Swimming Rowing the action of bringing the arm, oar, etc., forward for another stroke
4. Golf a stroke played from the rough or a bunker to the fairway or green
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also called a recovery action), in civil law, a method of defending property by which an owner can recover his property from the unlawful possession of another. This form of suit arose in Roman law.

In the USSR recovery is regulated by Article 28 of the Basic Principles of Civil Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics of 1961, articles 151-155 of the Civil Code of the RSFSR, and by analogous articles of the civil codes of other Union republics. An owner can recover his property from a mala fide purchaser and, if the property was acquired gratis, from a bona fide purchaser, regardless of the way in which the property left the owner’s possession. If a bona fide purchaser acquired the property gratis, it can be recovered only if it was lost by the owner or by a person into whose possession the owner had transferred it (for example, for temporary use) or if it was stolen from one or the other person or taken from them in any other way, regardless of their will. These limitations extend only to the recovery of personal property; state property and the property of kolkhozes or other cooperative and public organizations can be recovered from any purchaser. Money and bearer securities can be recovered in all cases only from one who has acquired them in bad faith.

The owner has a right to demand the return of his property and compensation for the income that the unlawful possessor extracted or should have extracted from the time he possessed it (if he is the possessor mala fide) or from the time when he learned or should have learned about the unlawfulness of possession (if he is the possessor bona fide). In turn, the possessor of the property has a right to demand from the owner compensation for the necessary expenses he incurred for the maintenance of the property from that time when income from the property was due to the owner. The regulation of recovery is basically similar in the majority of other socialist countries.

In the bourgeois countries of continental Europe that were influenced by Roman law, recovery has only some external similarity to recovery in socialist law, from which it is distinguished by its social and economic content. In the law of Great Britain and the majority of the states of the USA the concept of a recovery action does not exist.


Grazhdanskoe pravo, vol. 1. Moscow, 1969. Page 412.
Grazhdanskoe i torgovoe pravo kapitalisticheskikh gosudarstv. Moscow, 1966. Page 180.




the evaluation of the completeness with which an initial raw material is used in separation technological processes (including concentration of mineral products, metallurgical processes, and processes involving chemical technology). Recovery is calculated as the ratio between the quantity of the substance present in the particular product and the quantity in the initial material (in percentages or fractions). Because a raw material in technological processes is never completely separated into its constituent elements or compounds but rather the concentration of substances in the material changes up to the present value, the recovery depends on the initial concentration a, the concentration ² in the product obtained, and its yield γ:

Recovery is determined most often for a concentrated product, such as a concentrate or matte. In this case a distinction is made between commodity recovery, which is defined as the ratio of the mass of recovered component in the marketable product to the mass of the raw material, and technological recovery, which is defined by the concentrations of the component in the initial and all final products of the technological process. The discrepancy between commodity and technological recovery indicates inaccuracy in analysis of the concentrations, the existence of mechanical losses in the technological process, and inaccuracy in testing.

In mining work recovery of mineral resources from the earth’s interior is defined as the degree of completeness with which the ore mass, coal, or petroleum is extracted in the process of working the particular deposit.




the return of a portion of the material or energy expended in carrying out a production process for reuse in the same process. Thus, valuable solvents in the chemical industry are extracted by processing the spent mixtures with gases that do not react with the solvents, such as air, by direct condensation, and by other methods. Recovery of heat is realized in various heat engineering systems (recuperators) when the final product has a high temperature and requires cooling before release from the system. For example, in the separation of mixtures by distillation, the separated component is cooled by a mixture that has not yet been distilled. This cooling thus serves to heat the mixture before entry into the distillation apparatus.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


(aerospace engineering)
The procedure or action that obtains when the whole of a satellite, or a section, instrumentation package, or other part of a rocket vehicle, is retrieved after a launch.
The conversion of kinetic energy to potential energy, such as in the deceleration of air in the duct of a ramjet engine. Also known as ram recovery.
In flying, the action of a lifting vehicle returning to an equilibrium attitude after a nonequilibrium maneuver.
The rise in static water level in a well, occurring upon the cessation of discharge from that well or a nearby well.
The return of a body to its original dimensions after it has been stressed, possibly over a considerable period of time.
The percentage of valuable material obtained from a processed ore.
Reduction or elimination of work-hardening effects, usually by heat treatment.
(mining engineering)
The proportion or percentage of coal or ore mined from the original seam or deposit.
(petroleum engineering)
The removal (recovery) of oil or gas from reservoir formations.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


That phase of a mission that involves the return of an aircraft to a base.
An Illustrated Dictionary of Aviation Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

backup and restore

(1) Backing up files and recovering them after a system failure. See backup types, backup software, LAN-free backup and checkpoint/restart.

(2) (Backup and Restore) The backup control panel in Windows 7. In Windows XP, the Backup utility is in System Tools (Start menu/Programs/Accessories), and File History is the Windows 8 backup control panel.

bootable disk

An optical disc (CD, DVD) or USB drive that contains a bootable program that takes control of the computer. Computers are typically configured to look for the OS on a CD or DVD first and then the hard disk or SSD. The computer can also be configured to look for the USB drive first, although very early computers do not have that option.

System and Data Recovery
A bootable disk is used to recover a failed system when the OS on the internal storage drive does not load. The OS on the bootable disk can be a very lightweight version of the OS running in the computer, or it may be an entirely different OS. In the past, a compact version of DOS was used.

The bootable OS must support the file system on the computer's internal drive, and it must have sufficient drivers for the peripherals used in the recovery. In addition, bootable recovery disks contain troubleshooting and repair utilities. Even if the operating system cannot be restored, the bootable disk often enables valuable data files to be copied to an external drive. See file system.

Install or Replace an OS
A bootable disk is also used to install a new operating system. In this case, it boots a small program that is able to overwrite the existing OS or install the OS from scratch. For brand new computers, it often has an option to format the storage drive. The installation program on the bootable disk has complete control of the computer. See LiveCD and ISO image.


A method of recovering from a system failure. Also called a "snapshot image," a checkpoint is a copy of the computer's memory that is periodically saved on disk along with the current register settings (last instruction executed, etc.) and any other status indicators. In the event of a failure, the last checkpoint serves as a recovery point.

When the system has been fixed, the restart program loads the last checkpoint and starts the computer with the next instruction in line. However, any transactions in memory after the last checkpoint was taken and prior to the failure will be lost.

recovery disc

A bootable CD-ROM or DVD-ROM that contains the original installation of the OS and applications for a particular computer. When booted, a recovery program (recovery console) returns the computer to its initial state. Most recovery programs wipe out the entire hard drive, while some retain the user's data.

In lieu of an optical recovery disc, vendors often store the recovery image on a separate partition on the hard drive. If the operating system has become corrupted, but the drive still works, running the recovery program from the hard disk will restore the machine to its initial state.

The Better Approach
Far more advantageous than performing an optical or hard disk recovery to the computer's original state is to periodically back up the entire primary hard drive onto a second internal hard drive or to an external drive. See backup software.

tape backup

Using magnetic tape for storing duplicate copies of hard disk files. Starting in the 1980s, internal and external tape drives were occasionally used with personal computers. By the late 1990s, personal computer tape backup was largely abandoned due to CD-ROMs and the Internet.

Not So For Large Backup Systems
Large tape backup systems within the enterprise have always been used and continue to survive as a complementary disk backup (see HSM). Disk advantages are: fewer read errors; fast access to data; and random access capability that enables deduplication (storing only changes). However, tape offers several advantages over disk. They are less costly per byte of storage and are infinitely scalable by merely adding cartridges. They also enable transportability for off-site backup. See deduplication, magnetic tape and storage virtualization.

Tape Comes Big and Small
From the QIC tapes used with personal computers (top) to massive tape libraries used in large enterprises (bottom), tape archives fit all requirements. QIC cartridges held up to 20GB, while tape libraries hold hundreds of terabytes. See QIC and tape library. (Images courtesy of Iomega Corporation and Storage Technology Corporation.)

Tape Comes Big and Small
From the QIC tapes used with personal computers (top) to massive tape libraries used in large enterprises (bottom), tape archives fit all requirements. QIC cartridges held up to 20GB, while tape libraries hold hundreds of terabytes. See QIC and tape library. (Images courtesy of Iomega Corporation and Storage Technology Corporation.)
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In 1989, as the newly minted Recovery Coordinator for the U.S.