Stomatitis

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stomatitis

[‚stō·mə′tīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of the soft tissues in the mouth.

Stomatitis

 

inflammation of the oral mucosa accompanied by degenerative changes in the oral cavity. In humans, stomatitis may be caused by mechanical, thermal, chemical, or physical injury, hypovitaminosis, diabetes mellitus, diseases of the cardiovascular, nervous, hematopoietic, and digestive systems, acute infections (for example, measles, scarlet fever, and diphtheria), chronic infections (for example, tuberculosis), poisoning, and parasitic fungi (for example, thrush).

The factors that cause traumatic stomatitis include deposits of dental calculus, decayed carious teeth, poorly made prostheses and fillings, foreign objects, burns produced by hot food, and the action of alkalies and acids. A catarrhal process develops after short exposure to an injurious factor, with the mucous membrane becoming hyperemic and edematous and bleeding easily. Prolonged exposure results in the formation of ulcers, around which inflammatory phenomena develop.

Stomatitis caused by systemic diseases is characterized by the appearance of aphthae on the oral mucosa; it may be acute or chronic. Acute stomatitis aphthosa usually occurs in children suffering from gastrointestinal diseases, diatheses, or viral diseases. The body temperature is high, and aphthae surrounded by a bright red border appear on the mucosa of the gums, lips, and palate. There is profuse salivation, and the submaxillary lymph nodes become enlarged and tender. The disease lasts seven to ten days. Chronic recurrent stomatitis aphthosa is characterized by the periodic appearance of solitary aphthae on the buccal mucosa, the lateral surface of the tongue, and the lower lip. The bottoms of the aphthae are covered with a grayish yellow coating. The lymph nodes are usually not enlarged. The disease lasts five to ten days, after which the aphthae epithelize or are transformed into ulcers.

Ulcerative stomatitis commonly accompanies acute enterocolitis, gastric ulcer, and mercury and bismuth poisoning. It may result from tonsillitis or influenza. Ulcers may appear over the entire mucosa. A disagreeable odor emanates from the mouth, and salivation is profuse. With blood diseases (leukemias), aphthae appear on the oral mucosa and tonsils; the aphthae are eventually transformed into ulcers. Radiation sickness is characterized by the same symptoms.

Preventive and therapeutic measures include good oral hygiene, the elimination of the causes of the disease, rinsing of the mouth with a salt solution or boric acid (depending on the pH of the oral environment), physical therapy, and the application of sea-buckthorn oil.

REFERENCE

Rybakov, A. I. Stomatity. Moscow, 1964.
A. I. RYBAKOV
In animals. Stomatitis results from mechanical, thermal, or chemical factors (primary stomatitis) or accompanies such infectious diseases as foot-and-mouth disease and stachybotryotoxico-sis (secondary stomatitis). A diseased animal refuses to eat. The disease is manifested by frothy salivation, mucosal lesions, and a putrid mouth odor.
Treatment methods include irrigating the oral mucosa with disinfectants and astringents. Specific treatment is indicated in cases of secondary stomatitis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis for Dental Practitioners: J Int Oral Health.
Haematological parameters and recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
An exploration of point, annual, and lifetime prevalence in characterizing recurrent aphthous stomatitis in USA children and youths.
KEY WORDS: Celiac Disease, Dental caries, Enamel defects, Recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
Mohammadalipour, "Evaluation of the effects of chamomill mouthrinse on recurrent aphthous stomatitis," Dental Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, vol.
A similar study on 69 patients having recurrent aphthous stomatitis showed that haemoglobin levels and red blood indices were normal in these patients19.
Severe anemia, severe exhaustion, infection caused by herpes simplex-1 virus, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, and early age of child are the main risk factors for severe immunodeficiency in HIV-infected children.
Thus, it may be helpful to recommend Listerine[R] as both a preventive agent and a therapeutic intervention for clients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
A small subset of canker sore sufferers, those with complex recurrent aphthous stomatitis, have a much more difficult problem, said Dr.
Immunopathogenesis of oral lichen planus and recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
Efficacy of omega-3 in treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis and improvement of quality of life: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
INTRODUCTION: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common inflammatory ulcerative condition of the oral mucosa, which often occurs in otherwise healthy individuals.

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