Red Queen

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Red Queen

shaken by Alice, she turns into a kitten. [Br. Lit.: Lewis Carroll Through the Looking-Glass]
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The "Red Queen hypothesis", named after Carrolls figure, states that all living organisms must constantly adapt and change, in order to survive in a constantly-changing environment.
PETER RABBIT MEETS THE DEADLY MYXOMATOSIS VIRUS WHICH HINTS AT THE RED QUEEN HYPOTHESIS. KENNETH NUSBAUM, AUBURN UNIVERSITY.
The study was designed to test a popular evolutionary theory called the Red Queen hypothesis, named after Lewis Carroll's character who in "Through the Looking Glass" described her country as a place where "it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place."
Myriad factors remain unexplored in this species, including the ploidy of sexually and asexually produced eggs, the effects of parasites or other considerations of co-evolution (e.g., the Red Queen Hypothesis), and the accumulation of deleterious mutations (e.g., Muller's Ratchet).
A report in Science affirms this Red Queen hypothesis, an evolutionary theory whose name comes from a character in Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland, who says: "It takes all the running you can do to keep in the same place." The idea is that sexual reproduction via crossfertilization keeps host populations one evolutionary step ahead of the parasites, which are coevolving to infect them.
In this study, black spot parasites of the Phoxinus eos-neogaeus gynogenetic cyprinid complex, in Voyageurs National Park, were used to re-test the Red Queen Hypothesis, which suggest that sexual fish have an advantage over clonal fish regarding parasite loads.
The Red Queen hypothesis, for instance, finds the main benefit of sex in shuffling the genome quickly, making it difficult for parasites to lock onto weaknesses.
Under the Red Queen hypothesis, cross fertilization is advantageous because it allows for the production of genetically variable progeny, some of which escape infection by parasites that are "tracking" common host genotypes (Clarke 1976; Glesener and Tilman 1978; Jaenike 1978; Bremermann 1980; Hamilton 1980; Lloyd 1980).
At first glance, the Red Queen Hypothesis would seem to have direct applicability to the American food distribution industry.
According to the Red Queen hypothesis, sexual recombination increases the probability of progeny escape from parasites adapted to common host genotypes by producing offspring with rare genotypes.
"The Red Queen Hypothesis predicts that sex should allow hosts to evade infection from their parasites, whereas self-fertilisation may increase the risk of infection," co-author Curtis Lively said.
A third issue is related to the Red Queen hypothesis (van Valen 1973).