Red River


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Red River,

Chinese Yuan Chiang, Vietnamese Song Hong, chief river of N Vietnam, 730 mi (1,175 km) long, rising in Yunnan prov., S China, and flowing southeast, in deep, narrow gorges, through N Vietnam to form a great delta before entering the Gulf of Tonkin. The river carries a large quantity of silt, rich in iron oxide, that gives it a red color. Northwest of Hanoi the river flows onto the coastal plain and receives the Clear and Black rivers, its chief tributaries. The Red River delta, c.75 mi (120 km) long and 75 mi wide, is the economic center of N Vietnam, whose chief port, Haiphong, is on the delta's north branch. Rice is the principal crop of the river valley; wheat, beans, rapeseed, corn, and subtropical crops are also grown. The Red River has an irregular flow and is subject to flooding, especially during the June–October high water period; dikes and canals protect the delta from floodwaters. A railroad and highway follow the Red River valley, an important transportation route linking China and Vietnam.

Red River.

1 River, 1,222 mi (1,967 km) long, southernmost of the large tributaries of the Mississippi River. It rises in two branches in the Texas Panhandle and flows SE between Texas and Oklahoma and between Texas and Arkansas to Fulton, Ark. It then turns southward, enters Louisiana, and crosses SE to the Atchafalaya and the Mississippi rivers. In Texas it flows rapidly through a canyon in semiarid plains, but later in its course it waters rich red-clay farm lands (whence the name Red). Dams on the river include the Denison Dam (completed 1943), which impounds Lake Texoma, one of the largest reservoirs in the United States. For many years navigation was difficult on the lower course of the Red River due to fallen trees that floated downstream and collected behind obstructions, forming rafts. The Great Raft, a 160-mi (257-km) log-jam built through the centuries, was cleared from the river in the mid-1800s. The river is now navigable for small ships to above Natchitoches, La. There are many lakes along the lower part of the river, and reservoirs serve as flood-control units on its tributaries.

2 River, often called the Red River of the North, c.310 mi (500 km) long, formed N of Lake Traverse, NE S.Dak., by the confluence of the Bois de Sioux and the Otter Tail rivers. It flows N between Minnesota and North Dakota and crosses the Canadian border into Manitoba, emptying into Lake WinnipegWinnipeg, Lake,
third largest lake of Canada, 9,465 sq mi (24,514 sq km), 264 mi (425 km) long and from 25 to 68 mi (40–109 km) wide, S central Man., Canada, N of Winnipeg. It is a remnant of glacial Lake Agassiz.
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. The river drains the principal spring wheat-growing area of the United States and Canada—the rich Red River valley region, the bed of the ancient Lake Agassiz. Its valley is subject to sometimes devastating spring floods, and the Red River Floodway was built in the 1960s to send floodwaters around Winnipeg. The river's chief tributary is the AssiniboineAssiniboine
, river, 590 mi (950 km) long, rising in S Sask., Canada, and flowing SE into Man. then E to the Red River at Winnipeg; named for the local Native Americans, the Assiniboine. The Qu'Appelle and Souris rivers are its chief tributaries.
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Red River

 

a river in the southern USA, a right tributary of the Mississippi. It is 2,050 km long and drains an area of 233,000 sq km. Originating on the Llano Estacado, in its middle and lower courses the Red River crosses the Gulf Coastal Plain. In the lower course it divides into two branches, the Old River, which empties into the Mississippi, and the Atchafalaya, which empties into the Gulf of Mexico. The Atchafalaya flows only during high water. The Red River is fed by rain. The hydrologic cycle is extremely irregular. There are floods in early spring and early summer; the water level is low in late summer and early fall. The flow rate at the mouth varies from 35 cu m per sec to 6,600 cu m per sec. When the water is at its average level, the river is navigable from Shreveport. The large Texoma reservoir is in the middle course. There are hydroelectric power stations on the Red River.


Red River

 

(Vietnamese, Song Hong, Song Coi; Chinese, Yüan Chiang, Lishe Ho, Hung Ho), a river in northern Vietnam and South China. The Red River is 1,183 km long and drains an area of approximately 158,000 sq km. It rises on the Yünnan Plateau, and the upper and middle courses, which are full of rapids, flow through a deep valley; the lower course lies in a coastal lowland and forms the Red River Delta, which occupies an area of approximately 15,000 sq km. The river empties into the Gulf of Tonkin of the South China Sea. The main tributaries of the river are the Lo on the left and the Da on the right.

The Red River is fed by rain and carries a great deal of water during the summer monsoon season. The mean flow rate is approximately 3,800 cu m per sec, with a maximum of approximately 35,000 cu m per sec. When freshets occur, the water level may rise to 10–12 m. The channels of the Red River and its branches in the delta are lined with dikes to prevent flooding. The river carries as much as 130 million tons a year of suspended load, which gives the water its characteristic red color.

The waters of the Red River are extensively used for irrigation, primarily of rice paddies. The river is navigable in the lower course, and oceangoing vessels can travel up the river to the city of Hanoi, 175 km from the sea. The Chinese city of Hok’ou and the Vietnamese cities of Hanoi, Lao Cai, and Yen Bai are situated on the Red River; the seaport of Haiphong is in the delta.

A. P. MURANOV

Red River

1. a river in the S central US, flowing east from N Texas through Arkansas into the Mississippi in Louisiana. Length: 1639 km (1018 miles)
2. a river in the northern US, flowing north as the border between North Dakota and Minnesota and into Lake Winnipeg, Canada. Length: 515 km (320 miles)
3. a river in SE Asia, rising in SW China in Y?nnan province and flowing southeast across N Vietnam to the Gulf of Tongkin: the chief river of N Vietnam, with an extensive delta. Length: 500 km (310 miles)
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