Red River Settlement

Red River Settlement,

agricultural colony in present Manitoba, North Dakota, and Minnesota. It was the undertaking of Thomas Douglas, 5th earl of SelkirkSelkirk, Thomas Douglas, 5th earl of,
1771–1820, Scottish philanthropist, founder of the Red River Settlement.
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. Wishing to relieve the dispossessed and impoverished in Scotland and Northern Ireland, he secured enough control of the Hudson's Bay CompanyHudson's Bay Company,
corporation chartered (1670) by Charles II of England for the purpose of trade and settlement in the Hudson Bay region of North America and for exploration toward the discovery of the Northwest Passage to Asia.
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 to obtain from it a grant of land called Assiniboia. This project met opposition from the very start, principally from the North West CompanyNorth West Company,
fur-trading organization in North America in the late 18th and early 19th cent.; it was composed of Montreal trading firms and fur traders. Formation
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, but also from the fur traders in the Hudson's Bay Company. Despite efforts to discourage the colony, Miles Macdonnell, a Selkirk man, brought a small group to the colony in 1812. The determined hostility of the North West Company mounted, especially after the company men had won the Métis (people of mixed European–indigenous Canadian descent), entirely to their side. By cajolery and threat they persuaded settlers to desert, but a new group of settlers came, and the colony was restored in 1815. North West Company men and Métis now resorted to violence on a large scale, killing 22 in the massacre of Seven Oaks (June 19, 1816). On hearing the news of the massacre, Selkirk fell upon the North West Company post, Fort William, and seized it. Other attacks followed. The result of these moves was a series of court charges and countercharges that impoverished Selkirk and helped to bring about the union (1821) of the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company. Agriculture had by this time been firmly established on the Western plains, and the Red River settlements were to grow and flourish. See also Riel, LouisRiel, Louis
, 1844–85, Canadian insurgent, leader of two rebellions, b. Manitoba, of French and Métis parentage. In 1869–70 he led the rebels of the Red River settlements, mainly Métis (people of mixed European–indigenous descent) and indigenous
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.

Bibliography

See J. P. Pritchett, The Red River Valley, 1811–1849 (1942); J. M. Gray, Lord Selkirk of Red River (1964).

References in periodicals archive ?
This exhibit also examines the events in the Red River settlement, which led to the 1869-70 Resistance, and the entry of Manitoba into Confederation in 1870.
The Indigenous knowledge about processing and organizing river water that had sustained the overwhelmingly Metis community of Red River settlement broke down in the face of rapid migration of newcomers to the city of Winnipeg in the last years of the 19th century and, more significantly, the first years of the 20th century.
They inhabited the Red River Settlement in Rupert's Land, a territory constituting a third of modern Canada's land mass, which since 1670 had been administered exclusively by the Hudson's Bay Company--until November 19, 1869, when Canada purchased it from the company for 300,000 pounds ($15 million).
Schooners linked Norway House to the fort which was a focus for industry and transport in the lower Red River Settlement.
Located some 600 km northwest of the Red River Settlement (now Winnipeg), the Devon Mission began when explorer Sir John Franklin sent word to England in 1819 that the trading post there would make an excellent place for a mission.
Paul, the expedition reached Minnesota Territory where the Italians followed the Wood Road north to Red River Settlement.
So here, three decades later, he finally tells the story of the Scotsman who devoted his energy and money to a new colony at the center of North America, and how his Red River Settlement in Manitoba signaled the demise of the fur trade and the birth of modern western Canada.
32 was to regularize land holdings in the Red River settlement at the time Manitoba joined Confederation.
Here Alexander Begg, who as a journalist moved to the Red River settlement in 1867, wrote a fictionalized version of settlement activities in which he included a description of the Red River Jig as a dance for couples where "[a] gentleman leads a lady to the middle of the floor and at the sound of the fiddle the pair begin to dance to each other in a regular break-down manner" (Begg 1871: 279).
Finally, in understanding the process of hybridization in the Red River Settlement, we also need to consider the location of Countryborn and White men who transgressed racialized class and gender boundaries, and sided against members of their own ethnic group.
A NEW WEB EXHIBIT from the Association for Manitoba Archives highlights the Red River Settlement Churches from 1818-1870.
It is documented as being grown at the Red River Settlement in the mid-1800s under the name Turnip Bassano, referring to its slightly flattened turnip-like shape.

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