(5) To paraphrase an often-quoted astronaut, the explicit theoretical definitions may have been "small steps" for the authors but are definitely "giant leaps" for red-tape research.
If measures of red tape are tapping into some underlying realities, one would expect to see a pattern of relationships both among different measures of red tape and between red-tape measures and Weberian characteristics.
If, indeed, the claims repeatedly made in the red-tape literature are true, one would expect to see at a minimum evidence for convergent validity that establishes the distinctiveness of measures of red tape from formalization.
Two measures of formalization developed by Hage and Aiken (1967 and 1969), one measuring the job codification subconstruct and the other measuring the rule observation subconstruct, were also used, as well as a set of red-tape measures based on administrative delays.
The total processing time (or the time used to do a task) thus has contributions from the red-tape dimensions of procedural delays, reporting requirements, and excessive rule boundedness in addition to the time that normally would be required to complete a task.
If such a situation exists, one might anticipate that high levels of red-tape induced administrative delay would motivate interest in, and may even lead to adoption of, new information technologies.
Hypothesis 1: The greater the red-tape induced administrative
Exhibit 1 summarizes the results of the regression, including the distribution of the residuals, our measure of red-tape induced procedural delay.