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The nutritive protein material within the embryo sac of seed plants.
Storage tissue in the seeds of gymnosperms.



in the seed of gymnosperms and most flowering plants, a tissue in which the nutrient substances necessary for the development of the embryo are deposited. In gymnosperms the endosperm is formed in the ovule during germination of the megaspore; it consequently becomes the female prothallus (gametophyte), with a haploid set of chromosomes. The archegonia in gynosperms develop from certain cells of the endosperm. In angiosperms the endosperm is formed after fertilization as a result of the merging of the spermatozoid with the secondary (diploid) nucleus of the embryo sac. In this case the cells of the endosperm are triploid. By uniting sets of chromosomes from both parent plants the endosperm becomes a physiologically active, viable nutrient tissue. It not only feeds the embryo but fosters embryonic growth and differentiation.

A distinction may be made between the nuclear, cellular, and helobial types of endosperm. In the first type the cell walls do not form immediately after formation of the nuclei. In cellular endosperms the cell walls form immediately after each division of the nuclei. Helobial endosperm is intermediate between the other two types. Endosperm is not equally developed in the mature seeds of flowering plants of different families. Thus, it is large in Gramineae, Solanaceae, and Umbelliferae, but in many other families, for example, Leguminosae, Compositae, and Rosaceae, the endosperm is poorly developed, and reserve nutrient matter is deposited in the embryo itself, mainly in the cotyledons. In many Orchidaceae the endosperm is not formed.


Khudiak, M. I. Endosperm pokrytosemennykh rastenii. Kiev, 1963.
Poddubnaia-Arnol’di, V. A. Tsitoembriologiia pokrytosemennykh rastenii. Moscow, 1976.
References in periodicals archive ?
VAT volume was approximately 10 pc lower in adults who reported eating three or more daily servings of whole grains and who limited their intake of refined grains to less than one serving per day," first author Nicola McKeown, a scientist with the Nutritional Epidemiology Program at the USDA HNRCA, said.
of this study is that replacing refined grains with whole grains as part of a balanced diet can be beneficial for cardiovascular health and help you lose abdominal fat.
Here's how and why to keep refined grains from sneaking into your diet.
But we estimate that each also has about 10 grams of refined grain.
A "whole grain blend" can be mostly whole grain, mostly refined grain, or half and half.
The Diabetes & Women's Health Study, a research project led by Eunice Kennedy Shriver's National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), revealed women with gestational diabetes, or high blood sugar during pregnancy, should include low portions of refined grains in their diet.
Limit refined grains, like white rice and white bread, because the body rapidly turns them into blood sugar.
Weight-watchers were advised to cut out sugar-sweetened drinks, potatoes, and refined grain foods such as white bread, white rice and low-fibre breakfast cereals.
When the team compared the relationship of both visceral fat tissue and subcutaneous fat tissue with whole and refined grain intake, they observed a more striking association with visceral fat.
The two final sections of the book discuss applications of BNMs, which not only benefit from the refined grain structure but also, in the case of SPD-processed BNM, from the high densities of SPD-induced lattice defects.
Refined grain products even "fortified" with added vitamins cannot compare.