Diabetic nephropathy (a) 28 Hypertensive nephropathy 11 Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (b) 7 Collapsing glomerulopathy (c) 2 Granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis (d) 2 Acute pyelonephritis 1 Thrombotic microangiopathy 1 Atheroembolic disease 1 Reflux nephropathy
(e) 1 Proliferative glomerulonephritis (f) 1 Membranous glomerulonephritis (g) 1 Amyloidosis 1 (a) All patients had clinical diabetes.
 have showed that the reduced production of EGF associated with high expression of CCL2/MCP-1 might cause an overproduction of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines that trigger apoptosis, ultimately leading to tubular atrophy and renal dysfunction in reflux nephropathy .
IL-6 may also be involved in the pathogenesis of reflux nephropathy. IL-6 induces B and T cells activation and differentiation during inflammation .
"We do know the incidence of end-stage renal disease and hypertension from reflux nephropathy
is much lower than was previously thought, but now some adult medicine journals are suggesting that 40- and 50-year-olds with renal scarring have a higher incidence of hypertension."
Urinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, and reflux nephropathy
.BrennerBM Brenner & Rector's The Kidney7e edition.
It is based on a paradigm for reflux nephropathy
now in disrepute.
OBSTRUCTIVE NEPHROPATHY, REFLUX NEPHROPATHY
, HYDRONEPHROSIS, AND CHRONIC PYELONEPHRITIS
Vesicoureteral Reflux and Reflux Nephropathy
. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2011;18:348-54.
Another 2 patients had relatives with end-stage renal disease of unknown etiology, and 1 patient had a son diagnosed with reflux nephropathy
. There was no known family history of hematuria or renal disease in 3 patients; 1 of these patients had been adopted.
Rates of reflux nephropathy
(RN) have decreased remarkably over the past 50 years, owing in various degrees to more rapid detection of urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants and children, improved medical therapy and timely surgical intervention.
This has to be well-defined, considering that the popular dextranomer/hyaluronic acid endoscopic injection has been reported to have unexpectedly high recurrence rates on longer-term follow-up.[sup.3]-[sup.6] Recently published data from the Swedish Reflux Trial in Children have not shown a difference in infection rates comparing antibiotic prophylaxis and endoscopic treatment groups;[sup.7] there was no evidence of new renal damage reported in the medical therapy group.[sup.8] Thus, confirmation that surgery is significantly better is hard to find; this unfortunately weakens our colleagues' stand and ultimate conclusion that surgery is the "gold standard" (particularly in terms of preventing long-term problems such as reflux nephropathy