Reformed churches

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Reformed churches,

in a general sense, all Protestant churches that claim a beginning in the Reformation. In more restricted and more usual historical usage, Reformed churches are those Protestant churches that had their ecclesiastical origin in the doctrines of John Calvin, as distinct from those that are Lutheran or Evangelical. Swiss and Dutch churches and many in Germany came to be denominated Reformed. The Reformed churches as a rule follow the polity of PresbyterianismPresbyterianism,
form of Christian church organization based on administration by a hierarchy of courts composed of clerical and lay presbyters. Holding a position between episcopacy (government by bishops) and Congregationalism (government by local congregation),
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. They tend toward a simple form of worship rather than elaborate ritual. In the United States, churches bearing the Reformed title include the Reformed Church in AmericaReformed Church in America,
Protestant denomination founded in colonial times by settlers from the Netherlands and formerly known as the Dutch Reformed Church. The Reformed Church in Holland emerged in the 16th cent.
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, generally known as the Dutch Reformed Church, the Christian Reformed ChurchChristian Reformed Church,
denomination formed after the secession of a group from the Reformed Church in America in 1857. Colonists from Holland who began settling in Michigan in 1846 generally became members of the Reformed (Dutch) church there.
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, the Evangelical and Reformed ChurchEvangelical and Reformed Church,
Protestant denomination formed by the merger (1934) of the Reformed Church in the United States and the Evangelical Synod of North America. Both of these bodies had originated in the Reformation in Europe.
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, and the Free Magyar Reformed Church in America. The first two trace their origin to Holland, the third to Germany and Switzerland, and the fourth to Hungary. See CalvinismCalvinism,
term used in several different senses. It may indicate the teachings expressed by John Calvin himself; it may be extended to include all that developed from his doctrine and practice in Protestant countries in social, political, and ethical, as well as theological,
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(12) The theme was "The Holy Eucharist in the Teaching of the Orthodox and Reformed Churches." The main Reformed presentation, by E.
A detailed list of 746 Reformed churches form the main part of the book, covering more than 500 pages.
On the paucity of official church sanctions through consistories against congregants practicing witchcraft and other deviltry see Philippe Chareyre, "'The Great Difficulties One Must Bear to Follow Jesus Christ': Morality at Sixteenth-Century Nimes," and Raymond Mentzer, "Marking the Taboo: Excommunication in French Reformed Churches," both in Raymond Mentzer, ed., Sin and the Calvinists: Morals Control and the Consistory in the Reformed Tradition, Sixteenth Century Essays and Studies, vol.
Not everything was diverse within Calvinism; the various Reformed churches, notes Duke in his introductory paragraph, exhibited "a marked sense of confessional solidarity." One of their most significant common features was a tendency to regard ecclesiastical discipline as a third mark of the true church, beyond Luther's emphasis on correct preaching of the Word of God and correct administration of the sacraments.
In 1934 and 1936, the bishops wrote pastoral letters, warning that whoever gave 'considerable' support to the movement risked being barred from the sacraments.[12] In 1936, the General Synod of the Reformed Churches also decided that the straying of National Socialists had to be fought from the pulpit.
One might wish for more attention to the World Alliance of Reformed Churches' work with Pentecostals and with the Catholic Church, as well as the recent Reformed contributions to Faith and Order, which have been impressive.
They provide a good, though brief, historical outline of the involvement of Reformed churches in the area, and identify key persons, events and influences in the story.
In addition to statistics on each of the Reformed churches and schools, larger areas have brief historical sketches of the formation and development of Reformed/ Presbyterian churches in the countries involved.
The largest of these Reformed churches (the Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk -- NGK) is in fact organized into four separate racial(3) churches, and explicitly speaks of itself as a "family of churches." The second largest Afrikaans Reformed church (the Nederduitsche Hervormde Kerk -- NHK) has an infamous Article III in its constitution which states that only whites may be members.
The broad group of churches the Presbyterian Church in Canada belongs to is the World Communion of Reformed Churches, not Reforming Churches.
In May 2004 the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Netherlands merged with the two largest Dutch Reformed Churches into the Protestant Church in the Netherlands.

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