a dam built mainly from reinforced concrete, which provides structural strength. According to the conditions of water flow, reinforced-concrete dams may be of the fixed type (generally at high pressures) or the spillway type, with surface or subsurface openings (at various heads). Gravity, buttressed, and arch reinforced-concrete dams are distinguished by their design features.
Gravity reinforced-concrete dams are cellular or crib structures, sections of which are filled with ballast soil. The weight of the soil, as well as the elimination of seepage pressure on the base of the dam (because of the absence of a continuous base plate) make possible a large saving in the volume of concrete and make the structure resistant to displacement. Buttressed reinforced-concrete dams are thin-walled structures with a small volume of reinforced concrete. Its weight, which is insufficient to provide stability, is compensated for by the weight of the water above its flat or arched pressure ceiling, which is at an angle of 45°–55° to the horizontal. Arch reinforced-concrete dams are rarely constructed; in a number of cases they are less economical than concrete arch dams because of high consumption of steel.
REFERENCESGrishin, M. M. Gidrotekhnicheskie sooruzheniia. Moscow, 1962.
Berezinskii, A. R., V. F. Sokolova, and V. V. Alipov. Primenenie sbornogo zhelezobetona v gidrotekhnicheskikh sooruzheniiakh. Leningrad-Moscow, 1959.
N. N. PASHKOV