Relative Magnitudes

Relative Magnitudes

 

in statistics, quantitative measures of the relationship between two indexes that are being compared. Relative magnitudes are obtained by dividing one of the indexes by the others, which is taken as the basis of comparison. The forms in which relative magnitudes are expressed include coefficients (multiple ratios), percentages, and pro mille ratios, while concrete numbers (for example, number of inhabitants per sq km) are used in some cases. In his works, V. I. Lenin used relative magnitudes to analyze statistical data on agriculture, industry, and other branches of the economy.

In the USSR relative magnitudes are used to determine the level of plan fulfillment, to measure trends in the development of social phenomena and clarify the structure and distribution of these trends, and to compare different objects with one another. In keeping with these varied applications, relative magnitudes are subdivided into distinct types for, respectively, plan fulfillment, dynamics, structure, coordination, intensity, and comparison. The relative magnitude of plan fulfillment is the ratio of the actual value of an index to the planned value for the same period. A dynamic relative magnitude is derived by correlating the level of an index for a period being studied with its level for some preceding period; for example, the growth rate of the total volume of industrial output in the USSR in 1972 was 1,365 percent of 1940 and 106.5 percent of 1971 levels.

Structural relative magnitudes are calculated as the ratio of parts or groups of an aggregate to the whole aggregate; for example, the share of production of the means of production in the total volume of industrial output was 73.6 percent in 1972. Coordinating relative magnitudes describe the interrelations of parts of a single aggregate, for example, the number of auxiliary workers per 100 production workers. Relative magnitudes of intensity, or intensity rates, show the degree of development or distribution of phenomena in a given environment; they are the ratios of different but interrelated values, as in the expression of population density in number of inhabitants per sq km. Relative magnitudes of comparison, or ratios of comparison, represent the relationship between indexes for different instances of the same phenomenon; for example, the production of cast iron in the USSR in 1972 was 110 percent of US production of cast iron and 620 percent of British production. Relative magnitudes are used in Soviet statistical practice as an important tool for analyzing individual enterprises, sectors, and the national economy as a whole.

REFERENCES

Lenin, V. I. Razvitie kapitalizma v Rossii. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 3.
Kozlov, T. I., V. E. Ovsienko, and V. I. Smirnskii. Kurs obshchei teorii statistiki, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1965.
Obshchaia teoriia statistiki, 2nd ed. Edited by T. I. Kozlov. Moscow, 1967.

S. B. OSHEROVA

References in periodicals archive ?
The relative magnitudes of component losses depend on load and each loss needs to be addressed in order of importance to reduce total losses.
Conditional and relative magnitudes of rotating magnetomotive force space harmonics calculated according (11) and (12) are listed in Table IV.
If trade data were re-calculated to reflect the country of origin of various components of value-added, the general picture would not change, but the relative magnitudes would: higher US deficits with Germany, South Korea, Taiwan, and Japan, and a dramatically lower deficit with China.
The relative magnitudes of peak ILI also corresponded to the relative magnitudes of reported influenza hospitalizations; the lowest magnitude for each occurred during the 2006-07 season.
If an explanatory variable is insignificant, then a horizontal line can be drawn through the 95% confidence band and the relative magnitudes of the effect of the explanatory variables are judged by the relative y-axis ranges of the spline function.
These findings offer a new view into the relative magnitudes of the various potential sources of mercury release, which can harm the development of a fetus if the mother is exposed to high levels.
The ability of monetary policy to control inflation with a NKPC depends on the relative magnitudes of these coefficients.
Having established (Granger) causality, the authors investigate the relative magnitudes of these directions of causality using the decomposition test developed in Geweke (1982).
From Table 1 it is possible to understand the relative magnitudes of the losses and noise that different channel components contribute.
Sensitivity correlations across traits indicated that dancers were accurate about the relative magnitudes of trait differences in the two types of dancers.
Another colleague (the reviewer of this article) and I recently discussed the relative magnitudes of impact factors in different disciplines.
While there is considerable uncertainty about the relative magnitudes of these effects, current asset prices do not appear to be compatible with h istorical rates of return.

Full browser ?