Remonstrants


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Remonstrants

(rĕmŏn`strənts), Dutch Protestants, adherents to the ideas of Jacobus ArminiusArminius, Jacobus
, 1560–1609, Dutch Reformed theologian, whose original name was Jacob Harmensen. He studied at Leiden, Marburg, Geneva, and Basel and in 1588 became a pastor at Amsterdam.
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, whose doctrines after his death (1609) were called Arminianism. They were Calvinists but were more liberal and less dogmatic than orthodox Calvinists and diverged from the teachings of the Dutch Reformed Church. After the death of Arminius and under the leadership of Simon EpiscopiusEpiscopius, Simon
, 1583–1643, Dutch Protestant theologian, whose original name was Biscop, Bischop, or Bisschop. Episcopius accepted the teachings of Jacobus Arminius and was a leader of the Arminians, or Remonstrants, who opposed the Calvinist conception of
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, they set forth their articles of faith for Holland and West Friesland in a petition that became known as the Remonstrance. Their main variations from orthodox views, as set forth, were conditional, rather than absolute, predestination; universal atonement; the necessity of regeneration through the Holy Ghost; the possibility of resistance to divine grace; and the possibility of relapse from grace. A movement to suppress the Remonstrants was led by Franciscus Gomarus and Prince Maurice of NassauMaurice of Nassau
, 1567–1625, prince of Orange (1618–25); son of William the Silent by Anne of Saxony. He became stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland after the assassination (1584) of his father.
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, and finally, after a hearing at the Synod of Dort (1618–19), the orthodox position prevailed. Remonstrants were denied church services, and their leaders were persecuted and exiled. With the death of Prince Maurice in 1625 the ban was lifted and the religion was tolerated until 1795, when it was recognized as an independent church. The Remonstrants survive as a small group in the Netherlands. They have had a liberalizing influence on Calvinist doctrine as well as on other evangelical churches.
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References in periodicals archive ?
(The English had provided nearly half the soldiers in the Dutch army.) Moreover, King James pressured the States General to convene a so-called National Synod, to settle the disputes between the Remonstrants and Contra-Remonstrants--settle them in favor of the Contra-Remonstrants.
In his view, unity between Lutherans and Calvinists could be established if the Five Articles of the Remonstrants were approached with the relevant experience of theologians from the Palatinate taken into account.
The idea that the British delegation constantly played a conciliatory, peace-making role during proceedings is undermined by the fact that the British, when it suited their interests, took up hard-line positions-they were the first to suggest, for instance, that it would be justifiable to exclude the accused Remonstrants from the synod altogether.
Whatever might be one's judgement concerning the Enlightenment, one is forced to recognize that the Remonstrants have demonstrated their spirit of tolerance on several social and ecclesiological questions.
But by the mid-1980s both churches managed to produce a Declaration of Consensus, which was attractive enough to appeal to the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands as well as the Remonstrant Brotherhood (Arminians) to participate in the "Together-on-the-Way" process.
(34) "Catch-all charges such as "disturbing the peace" and "parasitism" resulted in police interrogation and jail time for remonstrants and other nuisances.
Their presence, Marshall writes, "enabled the women remonstrants to maintain a discreet distance from the political fray" (60).
Milton's close familiarity with one of Sir Francis Bacon's lesser-known works, A Wise and Moderate Discourse, Concerning Church-Affaires, written at the height of the Admonition controversy in 1589 but first published posthumously in 1641,(1) is apparent from an entry in the Commonplace Book and quotations in Animadversions upon the Remonstrants Defence against Smectymnuus (July 1641), An Apology against a Pamphlet (April 1642), and Areopagitica (November 1644), each time identifying Bacon as the source.(2) But, as we shall see, this is an incomplete record of his debt to the Discourse since there are further (mostly silent) borrowings from the tract which Miltonists have hitherto overlooked.
Ordinum Pietas defends the Remonstrants, whose views, Grotius argued, varied little from those of Lubbertus.
live comfortably in the world.(5) (Amsterdam: Remonstrants' Mss.
Conversations have already been held between the Remonstrants' board and the executive committees of the synods of the three uniting churches.
White recognizes that the disputes in the Netherlands between Remonstrants and Contra-Remonstrants threatened the harmony of the English Church.