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Constriction or narrowing, as of the heart or blood vessels.



the narrowing of a physiological opening or the lumen of a tubular organ. Examples of the former include stenosis of the left atrioventricular orifice of the heart, or mitral stenosis. Examples of the latter include stenosis of the intestine, trachea, bronchi, arteries, or pylorus of the stomach (pylorostenosis).

Stenoses may be congenital (developmental anomalies) or acquired, in which case they may be caused by a tumor or by scarring following an inflammatory process, ulcer, or trauma. Organic strictures are distinguished from functional stenoses, which result from a spasm of the musculature. Severe stenosis hampers the movement of blood, food, and air, and consequently the musculature of the organ located above the stenosis hypertrophies (compensated stenosis). Later, muscle tone decreases, the lumen of the organ above the stricture enlarges substantially, and the movement through the narrowed part becomes disrupted (decompensated stenosis).

Stenosis is treated surgically by enlarging the affected orifice, as in some cases of heart disease, by passing a bougie through the structure involved, by excising the constricted part, or by performing plastic surgery.

References in periodicals archive ?
Matsumoto et al., "Stent revascularization for the prevention of cardiovascular and renal events among patients with renal artery stenosis and systolic hypertension: rationale and design of the CORAL trial," American Heart Journal, vol.
Postanastomotic transplant renal artery stenosis: Association with de novo class II donor-specific antibodies.
Caption: FIGURE 2: Digital subtraction angiography demonstrating left renal artery stenosis.
Revascularisation procedures have increasingly been used in the management of renal artery stenosis refractory to medical management.
For the patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis with resistivity index > 0.8, we used fixed combinations: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and diuretic-Perindopril/Indapamide 2.5/0.625 mg; 5/1.25 mg; 10/2.5 mg or angiotensin II receptor antagonists and diuretic-Telmisartan 40 mg; 80 mg and Indapamide 1.5 mg.
Non-contrast enhanced MR angiography techniques have attracted interest in the medical community for diagnosing renal artery stenosis, as it eliminates the need for gadolinium-based contrast agents used with CT angiography.
A renal duplex ultrasound scan had suggested a right renal artery stenosis and she was referred for angiographic evaluation and treatment.
DIAGNOSIS: Bilateral renal artery stenosis due to fibromuscular dysplasia--intimal type.
Renal medicine and other physicians from the UK provide 13 chapters covering diagnostic tests; acute kidney injury; the prevalence, detection, and evaluation of chronic kidney disease; pre-dialysis clinics for end-stage renal disease; anemia management; urinary tract infections, renal stones, renal cysts, tumors, and pregnancy in chronic kidney disease; adult nephrotic syndrome; renal artery stenosis; palliative care; dialysis and renal transplantation, including issues with children; and the organization of services for patients.
According to Medtronic the primary endpoints of the study are the change in blood pressure from baseline to six months following randomisation and the incidence of major adverse events one month following randomisation and renal artery stenosis to six months.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Four groups of pigs were studied after 12 weeks of a normal diet (n = 9), a 2% HC diet (n = 9), HT (achieved by unilateral renal artery stenosis, n = 8), or HC+HT (n = 6).