Renville Agreement


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Renville Agreement

 

an agreement ending the first colonial war (1947–48) of the Dutch imperialists against the Republic of Indonesia, a war unleashed by the Netherlands in violation of the Linggadjati Agreement of 1947. The Renville Agreement was signed on Jan. 17, 1948, by the governments of the Republic of Indonesia and the Netherlands. The negotiations were conducted at the port of Jakarta on the “neutral territory” of the American ship Renville with the participation of the Good Offices Committee set up by the United Nations. The agreement comprised an armistice proper, 12 political principles governing the procedure and nature of future negotiations, and six additional principles of the Good Offices Committee.

The terms of the Renville Agreement were less favorable to the Republic of Indonesia than the terms of the Linggadjati Agreement. There was to be a cease-fire and a disengagement of troops along a provisional line. The territory of the republic was thereby greatly reduced; Dutch occupation was maintained over the greater part of the islands of Java and Sumatra, including all the port cities and oil-bearing regions. The Renville Agreement recognized Dutch sovereignty over all of Indonesia until the formation of the United States of Indonesia as provided for in the Linggadjati Agreement, in which the republic would constitute just one state.

Taking advantage of the deterioration in the domestic situation in the Republic of Indonesia, the Netherlands abrogated the Renville Agreement in December 1948 and started the second colonial war (1948–49). However, in the spring of 1949 the Netherlands was again forced to begin negotiations with the republic (seeROUND TABLE CONFERENCE OF 1949).

E. KH. KIAMILEV

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The new Renville Agreement of January 1948 was clearly in Dutch favour, but after its conclusion momentum was lost again.
It is difficult to overestimate the demoralising--yet, for Kartosuwiryo's interests, liberating and empowering--effect of the Republic's entering the Renville Agreement with the Dutch, on 17 January 1948.
91) Indeed, Robert Cribb remarks, 'the Renville Agreement .
Abikusno remarked that 'the Madjelis Sjoero Ulama [Ulama Council] of the Masjumi has declared that the Renville Agreement is haram [sinful] shortly after its signing' (paraphrased interview with George Kahin, Yogyakarta, 20 Nov.
Under heavy pressure from the United States, and with the threat that military action might be renewed, the Republik acquiesced and signed in January 1948 the Renville Agreement (named after the US warship where talks were held).
The Renville Agreement was criticised, but the Republik was not taken to task for signing it.
Despite growing doubts about Amir's course and the Renville Agreement, Muso initially remained loyal to his comrades and their approach.
This had landed it in a position in which it had no choice but to sign the Renville Agreement.
To the contrary, they had signed the Linggajati Agreement, and responsibility for accepting the Renville Agreement rested with them.
The immediate focus is the critical period between the Renville Agreement in early 1948 and the recognition (or handing over) of Indonesian sovereignty at the end of 1949, but the implications are far broader.
The Linggadjati and Renville agreements did not bring a solution, and the Dutch cabinet resorted in its flight ahead in December 1948 for the second time to military action.