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in international law, one of the means of legal defense in relations between countries. Reprisals are sanctions applied by a state in response to illegal acts by another state in order to induce the latter to compensate for damages or to desist from violations in the future.

Reprisals must be preceded by a demand for indemnification. They are permissible only if the other side refuses to make restitution and must cease immediately if redress has been made. Moreover, reprisals must be commensurate with the illegal actions against which they are directed. Under no circumstances, however, may a wronged state resort to armed reprisals, occupy the territory of the delinquent state, or seize its ships on the high seas. In present-day international law such acts are defined as aggression.

The Declaration on the Principles of International Law, adopted by the 25th session of the UN General Assembly in 1970, contained a provision stating that countries must desist from acts of reprisal involving the use of force.

References in periodicals archive ?
An amendment to Title 10, United States Code, Section 2409, called, "Contractor Employees: Protection From Reprisal for Disclosure of Certain Information," expands whistleblower protections to employees of subcontractor firms that receive federal funds either from Pentagon contracts or grants.
Addressing the panel discussion on "intimidation or reprisals against individuals and groups who co-operate with the UN, its representatives and mechanisms in the field of human rights" held in Geneva on the sidelines of the 21st session of the UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC), Qatar's second secretary of the Permanent Mission of the State of Qatar to the UN, Al Muhanad al-Hammadi, said that human rights defenders needed protection provided by the UN and the international community, and that everyone had the right to legitimately protest violations of their human rights.
The blasts in the northern Kaduna state, and reprisal violence that saw Christians target Muslims, are thought to have killed at least 45 people.
Without this, justice would not be done and a vicious cycle of abuses and reprisals risks being perpetuated.
If people are being returned to Sri Lanka, who are known or are suspected to be Tamils associated with the LTTE, the possibility of reprisals from the authorities are a concern," the Telegraph quoted Sam Zarifi, the Asia program director for Amnesty International, as saying.
The prohibition against armed reprisals remains one of the most well established jus in bello benchmarks, at least in principle and in textual proscription.
The ILC commentary, however, explicitly points out that the reference is to "non-forcible measures" and, hence, clearly not applicable to armed reprisals.
Sometimes the choices faced will seem too harsh or the reprisals too severe, but in forcing the reader to experience these differences between modern day sensibilities and the mores of ancient Greek times, a fresh experiencing of the mythic events begins, in full contrast and comparison.
Trade Representative Ron Kirk has asked Brazil to go easy on up to $800 million in trade reprisals it can impose on the United States under a World Trade Organization ruling on U.
Summary: US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice said on Friday she would go to Libya soon after the signing of a compensation deal for American victims of Libyan attacks in the 1980s and US reprisals.
started today to withdraw from the troubled province staff amid fears of reprisals after the International Criminal Court moved to charge Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir.
Warwickshire Police had urged Stratford-upon-Avon Council to cancel the annual Bulldog Bash, saying they feared reprisals could take place after a brutal murder last year.