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Republic of Kalmykia-Khalmg-Tangeh,

constituent republic (1990 est. pop. 329,000), c.29,400 sq mi (76,150 sq km), SE European Russia, on the Caspian Sea. Elista is the capital.

Land and People

Lying mostly in the vast depression of the N Caspian lowland, Kalmykia is largely a steppe and desert area. There are salt lakes but no permanent waterways. Stock raising (horses, cattle, sheep, goats, and some pigs and camels) is by far the leading economic activity, and fishing is important. Irrigation has made limited agriculture possible; winter wheat, corn, and fodder crops are grown. Industry revolves primarily around the processing of agricultural products, fish, and minerals. The population is primarily Kalmyk (45%) and Russian (37%). Buddhism and Orthodox Christianity are the main official religions. The republic has a 130-member parliament.


A seminomadic branch of the Oirat Mongols, the Kalmyks migrated from Chinese Turkistan to the steppe W of the Volga's mouth in the mid-17th cent. They became allies of the Russians and were charged by Peter I with guarding the eastern frontier of the Russian Empire. Under Catherine II, however, the Kalmyks became vassals. In 1771 about 300,000 Kalmyks E of the Volga set out to return to China but were decimated en route by Russian, Kazakh, and Kyrgyz attacks. The Kalmyks west of the Volga remained in Russia, where they retained their Lamaist Buddhist religion and their seminomadic life. The word Kalmyk in Turkish means "remnant," referring to those who stayed behind.

The Kalmyk Autonomous Region was established in 1920; it became an autonomous republic in 1936. During World War II, Kalmyk units fought the Russians in collaboration with the Germans. As a result, the people of Kalmykia (some 170,000 individuals) were deported to Siberia in 1943, and their republic was dissolved. In 1956, Nikita Khrushchev denounced the deportation as a Stalinist crime, and the following year about 6,000 Kalmyks were returned. The Kalmyk Autonomous SSR was officially reestablished in 1958. The republic was a signatory, under the name Republic of Kalmykia-Khalmg-Tangeh, to the Mar. 31, 1992, treaty that created the Russian Federation (see RussiaRussia,
officially the Russian Federation,
Rus. Rossiya, republic (2015 est. pop. 143,888,000), 6,591,100 sq mi (17,070,949 sq km). The largest country in the world by area, Russia is bounded by Norway and Finland in the northwest; by Estonia, Latvia, Belarus,
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). The Kalmyks sought independence in the early 1990s but agreed to abandon separatist aims in 1994.

References in periodicals archive ?
The paper has been completed under the grant of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research titled "Study of gene pool of valuable animal breeds in the Republic of Kalmykia using innovative biotechnological methods for improving breeding qualities of aborigine breeds" (Project No.
In the northern Caucasus autonomous republic of Kalmykia, the Editor-in-Chief of Sovetskaya Kalmykia Segodnya (Soviet Kalmykia Today), a newspaper opposed to local President Kirsan Ilyumzhinov, was killed in June 1998.
Electronic auction: provision of services for the maintenance of the adjacent territory for the needs of the office of the federal treasury for the republic of kalmykia
According to the results of the recent investigations (2013) which has been carried out in the agrochemical laboratories of the Republic of Kalmykia, the water from the water site Kisly (Remontnensky district, Rostov region) is characterized according to the criteria of the mineral waters assessment as cold (2[degrees]C), highly mineralized (25 g/l), acidic (pH 3.
Electronic auction: provision of cleaning services for administrative buildings for the needs of the office of the federal treasury for the republic of kalmykia
We found the following the most important: to study the dynamics of the health status of adolescent children in the Republic of Kalmykia in the period between 2000 and 2013; to provide comparative evaluation of patterns of the morbidity structure among rural and urban adolescent children; to assess the impact of certain social characteristics on the formation of the adolescent children's health.
Electronic auction: execution of works on the surface treatment: 1) surface treatment device on the highway access from the r-22 "caspian" motorway m-4 "don" - tambov - volgograd - astrakhan to the city of elista on the section km 113 + 300 - km 127+ 000, the republic of kalmykia.
2) Kalmyk State University, the Republic of Kalmykia, 11, Pushkin Street, Elista, 358000, Russia.
Electronic auction: delivery (purchase) of a car for the needs of the investigation department of the investigation committee of the russian federation for the republic of kalmykia
The signing of the cooperation agreement, as well as the opening of the "Training Center for servicing and repair of Kirovets tractors" of the Petersburg Tractor Plant JSC will positively affect the socio-economic situation of the Republic of Kalmykia.
In the meeting hall of the Government of the Republic of Kalmykia a solemn meeting dedicated to the Day of the Worker of Agriculture and Processing Industry of the Republic of Kalmykia was held.
Electronic auction: execution of major repairs of window and door blocks in the administrative building and sports and health complex, fixed on the right of operational management for the ministry of internal affairs in the republic of kalmykia, located at: republic of kalmykia, priyutnensky district, p.

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