Reservations


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Related to Reservations: Indian Reservations

Reservations

 

(also, reserves), in some capitalist countries, areas set aside for the forcible settlement of the remainder of the indigenous population. There are reservations for American Indians in the USA, Canada, and Brazil, for Australian aborigines in the Commonwealth of Australia, and for Africans in the Republic of South Africa.

In the USA reservations are managed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, created in 1842. In actuality, the bureau’s activities are aimed at reducing the amount of reservation land, which decreased from 138 million acres in 1887 to 43 million acres in 1961. The bureau allows private monopolies to develop the natural resources of reservations. In the 1950’s the US Congress passed a series of laws designed to abolish the reservations and evict the Indians.

In Canada the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, created in 1860, was also instrumental in reducing reservation land and turning its natural resources over to monopolies. In 1966 reservation land totaled approximately 6 million acres, regarded as the property of 230,000 Indians. In 1969 the Canadian government announced its intention to abolish the reservations.

In Australia reservations are areas inhabited by aborigines, which only government employees and authorized persons are permitted to enter. Most of the reservations are in Western Australia, Queensland, and the Northern Territory, where they occupy more than 255,000 sq km, or 130,000 sq miles. On some reserves the aborigines have to some extent preserved their traditional way of life, but on others “detribalized” aborigines —those without tribal and clan ties—have taken up a sedentary way of life, hiring themselves out as laborers or receiving assistance from charitable organizations and missions.

In the Republic of South Africa reservations occupied approximately 13 percent of the country’s territory in 1970, and in this area lived about one-third of the country’s African population. In the early 1960’s the country’s racist government proceeded to organize Bantustans (Bantu Homelands), such as Transkei, Ciskei, and Kwazulu, by combining small reservations. The African population officially enjoys certain rights only on its own territory; in other parts of the country, declared “white areas,” Africans have only “temporary visiting” status. In the Republic of South Africa, the Bantustans constitute an important reservoir of cheap labor, and the workers living in these areas are deprived of basic human rights.

The American Indians, Africans, and Australian aborigines who have been driven onto reservations are waging a valiant and persistent struggle against discrimination. They are fighting for their rights to their ancient lands or for equitable compensation for forcibly seized territories. A notable example is the armed uprising in 1973 of American Indians in the settlement of Wounded Knee on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, USA.

REFERENCES

Kabo, V. R. “Sovremennoe polozhenie aborigenov Avstralii.” Sovetskaia etnografiia, 1962, no. 5.
Bunting, B. Stanovlenie iuzhno-afrikanskogo reikha. Moscow, 1965. Pages 368, 372. (Translated from English.)
Natsional’nye problemy Kanady. Moscow, 1972.
Nalsional’nye protsessy v SShA. Moscow, 1973.
References in periodicals archive ?
More than 50 percent of adults on the reservation have the disease, according to Indian Health Service.
Example: Using the compass rose, you can see that the Ute reservation in Colorado is located northwest of Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Weasel-head, [33] the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals held that Public Law 102-137 allowed tribes to retain criminal jurisdiction over all Indians on their reservations, whether enrolled members of the prosecuting tribe or not.
Wildlife management on Indian reservations offers a distinct contrast between lessons lost and lessons learned from the history of Indian culture and institutions.
Since the directors of Desert Survivors have a long history of developing human services on a number of reservations in the Southwest and the tribal support for this project was unanimously approved, the state VR agency generously committed to developing vocational services for the disabled tribal members of the Tohono O'Odham Nation.
This precipitated a law suit commenced by Breakers Motel and others against Sunbeach to enforce a claimed right to common use of the Benson Reservation and to permanently enjoin Sunbeach from interfering with the common use and access over the Reservation.
In those rare instances when people who commit crimes on Indian reservations are prosecuted and convicted, the criminals tend to serve much shorter sentences than those convicted in Anglo communities.
But with the creation of reservations and federal policies that "tried to take the Indian out of the Indian," many Navajos and other Native people have gotten misplaced.
This map shows the locations of all federal and state Indian reservations in 2001.
Salish Kootenai College (SKC), located on the Flathead Reservation in northwestern Montana, is one of 24 tribally controlled colleges in the United States.
As the official headquarters for the press during the convention, the Ramada racked up 600 reservations for convention week and had a number of sold-out nights.