This is an issue in all injection molded parts and the fact is, we cannot mold even the simplest plastic part without some residual stress
. This residual stress
should be evaluated during design, molding, fixturing and part performance.
Due to the highly concentrated instantaneous heat input, residual stress
is inevitably generated during and after welding.
Influence of customised cutting-edge geometries on the workpiece residual stress
in hard turning
Existing wire-based AM systems used either ARC or laser as the heat input source, but both of these approaches have a fundamental limitation in controlling the heat input; which leads to distortion and residual stress
in the final parts.
Exploring internal and residual stress
in materials, 46 papers cover diffraction methods; mechanical relaxation methods; acoustic and electromagnetic methods; composites, nanostructures, and microstructures; films, coatings, and oxides; cold working and machining; heat treatments and phase transformations; welding, fatigue, and fracture; and stresses in additive manufacturing.
Due to the partial elastic recovery and the unrecovered elasticity working against a permanently set plastic deformation, the resulting residual stress
manifests as a nonlinear through-thickness residual stress
in bending direction.
In the view of several well-known classification societies the utilization of laser cladding technology as a repair method for crankshafts, especially in highly stressed zones such as fillets and bearing surfaces is not acceptable due to a high risk that the heat-affected zone could produce excessive hardness resulting in detrimental residual stress
. The authors of the current work believe that such a view is based upon purely precautionary measures due to the thermomechanical nature of the process, the use of which indeed carries the risk of detrimental residual stress
formation, however no quantifiable data is provided as justification.
The transparent conductive oxide films (TCO) had excellent physical and chemical properties, and the coating process parameters have significant influence on the optical, electrical, and structural properties and residual stress
of the transparent conductive oxide films.
Recently, many investigations on the welding of Mg/Al alloys have been conducted using FEM, especially on the analysis of residual stress
during welding, because magnesium and aluminum alloys are widely used in aerospace, automotive, machine, electrical, and chemical industries owing to their superior properties [12-14].
The localized heating and melting nature of welding or metal 3D printing inevitably generates high tensile residual stresses
. A longstanding manifestation of the detrimental effects of high tensile residual stress
has been the hydrogen induced cracking (HIC).
This can be an effect of the relatively small residual stress
relaxation, which as suggested in the previous section, might be outweighing the effect of interfacial adhesion.
All measurements were performed with a Prism (1) residual stress
measurement system .