DMD is characterized by progressive weakness and chronic inflammation of the skeletal, heart, and respiratory muscles
. Study patients are being treated via intravenous delivery with either CAP-1002 or placebo every 3 months.
'The disease can progress to weakness in the neck and arms, after which the respiratory muscles
and muscles of the lower body are affected,' the WHO says.
 In obesity, the function of respiratory muscles
is impaired from the increased resistance they must overcome and from the reduced capacity of these muscles.
In severe cases, the disorders might involve cardiac and respiratory muscles
and lead to death.
Does breathing type influence electromyographic activity of obligatory and accessory respiratory muscles
? J Oral Rehabil 2014;41:801-8.
Only in the last 15 years  it has been presented as a resource for exercising the respiratory muscles
Upper-limb and neck muscles (upper trapezius, neck flexors and middle deltoid) were assessed using the Oxford scale, owing to their common innervation pathways with the respiratory muscles
. The authors found that deltoid and neck flexor strength was associated with extubation failure, but not SBT failure.
The device has two small leads (wires): one that senses breathing and another that stimulates the respiratory muscles
to work when irregular breathing is detected.
Maximum inspiratory pressure ([P.sub.Imax]) is the force that respiratory muscles
are able to generate during an occlusive manoeuvre at prefixed volume (Hautmann et al., 2000).
The second mode, or 'Breathe Easier' mode, works at the faster frequency of 25Hz, which stimulates the respiratory muscles
In its advanced stages, it affects respiratory muscles
, leading to progressive muscle weakness, dysarthria, dysphagia, and cramps.
These subjective symptoms could be due to limited pulmonary reserve, limited cardiac reserve and increased muscle fatigue involving respiratory muscles
.  The type of disease may range from mild dyspnoea to severe respiratory failure.