conditioning

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conditioning:

see learninglearning,
in psychology, the process by which a relatively lasting change in potential behavior occurs as a result of practice or experience. Learning is distinguished from behavioral changes arising from such processes as maturation and illness, but does apply to motor skills,
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conditioning

a term used in LEARNING THEORY or BEHAVIOURISM meaning the process of training or changing behaviour by association and reinforcement. There are two basic types of conditioning – classical and operant.

Classical conditioning was defined by I. Pavlov (1911) in his research on the salivary reflex in dogs. He observed that if a neutral stimulus (NS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) so that they become ‘associated’, then the NS develops the same ability to evoke a response as the UCS. Thus the NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and the response becomes a conditioned response (CR). This type of conditioning occurs only in involuntary behaviours such as salivation, sweating, heart rate and other behaviours controlled by the autonomic nervous system, and such a conditioned response may therefore be known as a CONDITIONED REFLEX. Reinforcement is delivered regardless of response, as it precedes it and is typically also the UCS (food in the case of Pavlovs experiment).

Operant or instrumental conditioning was defined and extensively researched by B.F. Skinner (1953). It involves training voluntary responses as the reinforcement is only delivered after the response and is contingent upon the response. Learning or conditioning involves the development of an association or bond between a stimulus and a response by reinforcing responses when they occur. Because reinforcement follows response, respondent behaviour can be manipulated by varying when the reinforcement is given (schedules of reinforcement). Learning is more resistant to extinction if the schedule of reinforcement used in training is related to the responses and is unpredictable. An example of this is gambling on a fruit machine. Extinction is the fading and disappearance of behaviour through non-reinforcement, e.g. socially unacceptable behaviour should be disregarded and not reinforced. Behaviour can be shaped towards a desirable end by the reinforcement of successive approximations to this. In this way, animals can be taught to do ‘tricks’ which would not be found in their normal repertoire of behaviour. Shaping principles underlie much of the control we exert over each other behaviour, especially childrens.

Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000

conditioning

[kən′dish·ən·iŋ]
(electronics)
Equipment modifications or adjustments necessary to match transmission levels and impedances or to provide equalization between facilities.
(graphic arts)
Restoration of microfilm for use after it has been stored for a period of time.
(science and technology)
Subjecting a material or organism to a stipulated treatment or stimulus so that it will respond in a uniform and desired manner to subsequent testing or processing.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

conditioning

Extra cost options in a private telephone line that improve performance by reducing distortion and amplifying weak signals.
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References in periodicals archive ?
(1997) propose about how, in respondent conditioning arrangements, organisms are always behaving while stimuli are paired, and in operant conditioning arrangements, certain stimuli are inevitably paired with the reinforcer.
As outlined earlier, respondent conditioning of words with positive and negative functions have been used to change subjects' evaluations of neutral stimuli (Staats & Staats, 1957), but after the process was extended to third-order conditioning, results were not successful (Cicero & Tyron, 1989; Tyron & Cicero, 1989).
In effect, each respondent conditioning trial consisted of a combination of trace and simultaneous conditioning (see Chance, 1988, p.
The preliminary respondent conditioning phase of the experiment lasted approximately 30 min.
The experimenter terminated the training if visual inspection of the graphical representations of SRRs (continuously fed from the polygraph) suggested a response differential between Bi and 82 across the 12 respondent conditioning trials.
The test for a transformation of eliciting functions in accordance with the relational network (see Figure 1) was administered to those subjects who demonstrated visual evidence of respondent conditioning. This test began immediately and without warning following the final respondent conditioning trial.
Although some evidence exists as to the changes in physiological functioning brought about by respondent conditioning (e.g., Ferreira, Gollub, & Vane, 1969), the behavior of organisms does not take place in the nervous system.
The blocking effect, in which a prior history of respondent conditioning with one stimulus attenuates the later development of stimulus control by another stimulus (Kamin, 1969), has also been observed in operant procedures (e.g., Williams, 1975).
Other procedural difficulties have been noted, including the subject-controlled delay between the onset of a discriminative stimulus and reinforcer delivery in operant procedures, which may further preclude respondent conditioning of the discriminative stimulus (see Dinsmoor, 1983, for a discussion of these and other procedural variables relevant to the distinction between discriminative stimuli and conditioned reinforcers).
Similarly, stimuli that have acquired punishing or reinforcing functions through operant operations will transfer those functions to other stimuli present that may then also function as emotion-elicitors in respondent conditioning situations.
The respondent conditioning model upon which semantic conditioning is based suggests that conditioned functions to verbal or nonverbal events should invariably elicit some conditioned response irrespective of context (see Zuriff, 1985).
As with respondent conditioning, semantic conditioning operations are based on unidirectional S-R relations such that a CS elicits some CR, but not the other way around (CR elicits a CS).