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in biology, the restoration of the entire organism or individual organs, tissues, or cells after injury. Some scientists believe that regeneration and reparation are varieties of restitution, while others believe that restitution is the regeneration of the entire organism from a small part of that organism.
In nemertines of the genus Lineus, for example, a whole worm can develop from a preoral section. An entire hydra can form from a fragment excised from the middle of a hydra; this fragment can constitute 1/200 of the animal’s body volume. In plants a restored formation may differ from other parts of the organism, as well as from the part removed. When part of a leaf is detached, for example, either a new blade develops, or an infundibular leaf with a petiole develops.
In medicine, restitution is complete regeneration, that is, replacement of a defect with equivalent tissue, while substitution is partial regeneration.
(1) In civil law, the return by parties of anything received by them under a transaction if the transaction is acknowledged to be invalid.
In Soviet civil law the general rule is bilateral restitution: if a transaction is acknowledged to be invalid or does not comply with legal requirements (for example, if it is made by a person declared to be incapable), each of the parties is obliged to return everything received to the other party or to repay its value in money. If the transaction was carried out under the influence of fraud or threats, only the culpable party returns everything received and pays the expenses incurred; that which the victim receives from the culpable party is taken as state income (unilateral restitution).
(2) In international law, the return of property illegally seized and removed by a country from another country with which it is at war. International legal instruments adopted during and after World War II provided for the return, as restitution, of the many valuables that had been seized and illegally removed by fascist German forces and their allies from temporarily occupied territory.