Retaining Wall


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retaining wall

[ri′tān·iŋ ‚wȯl]
(civil engineering)
A wall designed to maintain differences in ground elevations by holding back a bank of material.

retaining wall

A wall, either freestanding or laterally braced, that bears against earth or other fill surface and resists lateral and other forces from the material in contact with the side of the wall.
See also: half-timbered wall

Retaining Wall

 

a structure that keeps earth lying behind it from sliding.

Retaining walls are used in hydraulic engineering, road building, industrial construction, and civil engineering. They are very common in hydraulic engineering, in which they constitute one of the most important structural elements in embankments, berths, lock compartments, shore abutments of spillway dams and hydroelectric power plants, chutes, and overfalls. They are constructed of natural rock, concrete, reinforced concrete, metal, and wood. The cross-section area and the profile of a retaining wall are determined by calculations of its strength and its shear resistance. When the resistance is provided by its own weight, it is called a gravity-type retaining wall.

Retaining wall

A generic structure that is employed to restrain a vertical-faced or near-vertical-faced mass of earth. The earth behind the wall may be either the natural embankment or the backfill material placed adjacent to the retaining wall. Retaining walls must resist the lateral pressure of the earth, which tends to cause the structure to slide or overturn.

There are several types of retaining walls. A gravity wall is typically made of concrete and relies on its weight for stability (illus. a). The mass of the structure must be sufficient to develop enough frictional resistance to sliding, and the base or footing of the structure must be wide enough to develop sufficient moment to resist overturning earth forces. A cantilever retaining wall (illus. b) gains a larger effective mass by virtue of the soil placed on the horizontal cantilevered section of the wall. Reinforced counterforts are spaced along the wall to increase its strength. A variation of the gravity retaining wall is the crib wall (illus. c) is usually constructed of prefabricated interlocking concrete units. The crib is then filled with soil before the backfill adjacent to the crib is placed. Bulkhead retaining walls (illus. d) consist of vertical sheet piling that extends down into the soil and is stabilized by one or more tiebacks and anchors periodically spaced along the structure. The sheet piling may be made of reinforced concrete, steel, or aluminum. See Cantilever

Retaining walls are often used in the marine environment, where they separate the retained soil from the water. Gravity walls (known as seawalls) can be constructed where strong wave and current forces are exerted on the wall. Bulkheads are more commonly found in sheltered areas such as harbors and navigation channels. See Harbors and ports

retaining wall

retaining wall
A wall, either freestanding or laterally braced, that bears against an earth or other fill surface and resists lateral and other forces from the material in contact with the side of the wall, thereby preventing the mass from sliding to a lower elevation. Also see cantilever wall, counterfort wall, gravity wall.
References in periodicals archive ?
To strengthen oversight of these walls and improve safety, legislation was signed in August 2008 requiring property owners to perform periodic inspections of their retaining walls every five years and submit reports on the stability of the wall to the Department.
A section of the northbound lane cracked and dropped 2 feet by early Sunday morning, as 50 feet of the retaining wall buckled under the relentless pressure.
Augustus acknowledged that the condition of the retaining wall is an issue.
Officials said an investigation was being made to find out why the 15-meter high retaining wall collapsed.
NORDIC BUSINESS REPORT-January 13, 2011--Finnish Ruukki delivers retaining walls for tunnel project in Norway(C)2011 M2 COMMUNICATIONS http://www.
FLH canvassed 23 State departments of transportation (DOTs), partner land management agencies, and several major municipalities for experiences with retaining wall inventories.
A spokesman said the works will provide a new embankment in the field in front of the existing retaining wall and the construction of a new masonry boundary wall.
Key words: Retaining wall, Acid rain, Salt intrusion, pH, Russack Test, Dray, Factors Office, Stone ballast, Tie-back System, National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.
THE SITE had its challenges: a narrow backyard just 12 feet deep and 45 feet long, dominated by a huge retaining wall.
As we strained our ears, we could hear it faintly ringing behind the retaining wall.
Primary among the functions of the retaining wall is the leveling of grades to create more usable areas in the landscape.
This issue, we'll look at the forces that are acting on the wall, how they are resisted or lessened, as well as some common materials used in retaining wall construction.