GABAergic inhibition of the pars reticularis
substantia nigra neurons leads to further GABAergic inhibition of the thalamus, ultimately stimulating glutamatergic impulse transmission to the cerebral cortex (Herrero et al.
Though regulation of adrenarche is not well understood, we hypothesize that HCB may disrupt the production of sex steroids in the zona reticularis
of the adrenals and impair activation or responsiveness to androgens at the tissue levels (Havelock et al.
The presentation of calcific uremic arteriolopathy in the early stages is typically with dysesthesia, progressing to an erythematous, violaceous rash similar to livedo reticularis
The medical profession has very little recognition of adrenal estrogen produced by the inner layer adrenal cortex; however, there is a medical mention of androgen, which is produced by that same adrenal layer, referred to as the zona reticularis
There was atrophy of the zona fasciculata and the zona reticularis
, and compensatory hypertrophy of the medulla of the adrenal glands in the samples taken from two of the rats in Phase I (Fig.
In Europe, the ticks Dermacentor reticularis
and Ixodes ricinus are vectors for the bacterium (15-17), although previous research has suggested that mosquito bites are the most frequent route of transmission to humans in Sweden (6,9,18).
According to these authors, the zona reticularis
of the adrenal cortex synthesizes DHEAS from dehydroepiandrosterone.
In addition, the rostral superior colliculus projects to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus via the primary, shorter route through the pretectum and also through a secondary, longer route through the nucleus reticularis
tegmenti pontis (pons), cerebellar cortex, and cerebellar nuclei.
Several skin lesions, such as palpable purpura, livedo reticularis
, nodules, urticaria, and necrotic skin ulcers can be found in 30% to 60% of patients (15).
PiU della meta dei pazienti con TE e totalmente asintomatica al momento della diagnosi; i rimanenti pazienti manifestano generalmente sintomi "vasomotori" (cefalea, sincopi, dolore toracico atipico, livedo reticularis
, scotomi visivi, amaurosis fugax) (6), oppure complicanze trombotiche o emorragiche dovute ad una alterazione quantitativa e qualitativa delle piastrine (7).
These neurons send their axons to enkephalinergic neurons at the nucleus reticularis
paragigantocellularis and nucleus raphe magnus.
The similar Arothron reticularis
(Bloch & Schneider, 1801), also a large Indo-Pacific species with a type locality of India and ranging east to Fiji (Herre 1936), is much less common (for example, the Bishop Museum has 38 lots of A.