Retortion

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Related to retorsion: reprisal
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Retortion

 

in international law, actions taken by one state in response to the unjust or hostile acts of another state. The aim of retortion is to achieve, by lawful means, a situation in which disagreements among the parties may be settled and violated rights may be restored. Unlike reprisals, retortions are a response to lawful acts by a state that are committed by virtue of its territorial jurisdiction (for example, levying higher customs duties), but that harm the interests or prestige of another state.

Acts of retortion take different forms, for example, restricting the purchase of another country’s commodities or refusing entry to its citizens. Such acts are temporary and must cease immediately after the discriminatory measures are stopped. Contemporary international law permits retortion only as an extreme measure, when all other lawful means of influencing a state that is pursuing a discriminatory policy have failed.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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international obligations (whether the retorsion is in fact
from other means of international relations in that retorsion is an act
Cette mise en cause des Americains intervient alors que le ministere chinois des Affaires etrangeres a reitere hier lundi son "opposition resolue" a cet essai, mais sans annoncer de mesures de retorsion.
The first category involves actions that may be taken as a function of the exercise of sovereign rights that do not violate general principles of international law (i.e., retorsion).
En plus, considerant l'empressement avec lequel la Suisse a signe des protocoles semblables avec les Etats-Unis (138) et l'Allemagne (139) sous la menace des mesures de retorsion economique que ces pays brandissaient envers les banques suisses, il est clair qu'une nouvelle ere vient de marquer l'evolution du droit fiscal conventionnel.