Retortion


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Retortion

 

in international law, actions taken by one state in response to the unjust or hostile acts of another state. The aim of retortion is to achieve, by lawful means, a situation in which disagreements among the parties may be settled and violated rights may be restored. Unlike reprisals, retortions are a response to lawful acts by a state that are committed by virtue of its territorial jurisdiction (for example, levying higher customs duties), but that harm the interests or prestige of another state.

Acts of retortion take different forms, for example, restricting the purchase of another country’s commodities or refusing entry to its citizens. Such acts are temporary and must cease immediately after the discriminatory measures are stopped. Contemporary international law permits retortion only as an extreme measure, when all other lawful means of influencing a state that is pursuing a discriminatory policy have failed.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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(93.) See Peter Malanczuk, Countermeasures and Self-Defence as Circumstances Precluding Wrongfulness in the International Law Commission's Draft Articles on State Responsibility, in UNITED NATIONS CODIFICATION OF STATE RESPONSIBILITY 197, 207 (Marina Spinedi & Bruno Simma eds., 1987) (writing that "retortion is an unfriendly act against another State with the object to persuade that State to end its harmful conduct").
14 For examples of these arguments--argument ad hominem, argument 'of retortion', argument 'of double hierarchy', argument 'of ridicule', etc.--as they appear in actual historical contexts, see Pera, M., pp.
Despite unconventional retortions, and Mr Corbyn's own admission (in his final comment, he said in an interview with Channel 4 that "a wreath was indeed laid" for "some of those who were killed in Paris in 1992", adding "I was present at that wreath-laying, I don't think I was actually involved in it"), Corbyn's supporters were successful in removing the story from the headlines.