retrotransposon

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Related to Retroelements: Retrotransposition

retrotransposon

[¦re·trō·tranz′pō‚zän]
(cell and molecular biology)
A small, mobile deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence that can retrotranspose, that is, move from one genomic location to another by producing ribonucleic acid (RNA) that is transcribed by reverse transcriptase back into DNA which is then inserted at a new site.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Distinct roles for LINE-1 and HERV-K retroelements in cell proliferation, differentiation and tumor progression.
So Goff's group examined where in the sick clams' genome the retroelement landed, sampling clams from multiple locations along the Eastern Seaboard.
Retroelements, transposons and methylation status in the genome of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and the relationship to somaclonal variation.
All cells have ways to suppress these retroelements, but the suppression mechanisms in normal cells are different from those in stem cells, so the researchers had worried that retroelements would be allowed to escape suppression during the transition to a stem cell state.
et al (2006) Identification of an infectious progenitor for the multiple-copy HERV-K human endogenous retroelements.
Retroelements use a copy-and-paste process instead of the cut-and-paste process of transposons.
2000), and DNA sequencing of a large 211-kb DNA segment in diploid wheat revealed a complex pattern of genome rearrangement, including deletion of large DNA fragments containing retroelements (Wicker et al.
is pantropic; it permanently integrates its gene sequences into the host cell genome; it has an extraordinarily high mutation/ recombination rate; multiple subtypes are known (see below) to infect a subject at the same time in a single transmitting event; HIV-1 subtypes not only recombine with each other but may also recombine with human endogenous retroelements (11) or human chromosome segments (3,36); HIV-1 infection may activate human endogenous retroelements with or without recombination; and because of compartmentalization, the population dynamics of HIV-1 subtypes differ in different tissue compartments (see below).
and his colleagues at the University of California, Los Angeles, and AvidBiotics, defines the DNA sequences and structures that allow Diversity Generating Retroelements (DGRs) to mutate DNA sequences to direct changes ("diversification") at specific locations in a protein molecule.
350 million years old, it is known to have a role in "silencing" components of the mammalian genome known as retroelements, because they were originally retroviruses that became incorporated into the genetic code of the organisms they infected.
This proposal will combine my expert phenotyping skills with revolutionary sequencing technologies, cutting edge systems for the interrogation of retroelements, and contemporary immunological assays.