As will be discussed further below, the retroflex consonants are often replaced in singing with [rd], [rt], [rl], [rn], and [rs], respectively, depending on the level of formality and technical demands of the specific song.
Like the retroflex consonants, they are often replaced in sung Swedish, so singers who experience great difficulty in their pronunciation need not worry.
Likewise, many singers choose to sing without retroflex consonants, except when technical considerations demand it.
The occurrence rules for retroflex consonants cross nearly all morpheme and word boundaries, and the effect is also cumulative (for example an r preceding st makes both the s and t retroflex), as seen in Table (7).
Recall that the retroflex consonants may act as either double or single consonants on preceding vowels in stressed syllables.
Emeneau, in his justly renowned article on "India as a Linguistic Area,"(1) has remarked, following the painstaking work of earlier scholars as well as his own wide field experience, that retroflex consonants
are found in most languages of India.