revitalization movement

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revitalization movement,

political-religious movements promising deliverance from deprivation, the elimination of foreign domination, and a new interpretation of the human condition based on traditional cultural values, common in societies undergoing severe stress associated with colonial conquest and intense class or racial exploitation. A prominent example is the Ghost DanceGhost Dance,
central ritual of the messianic religion instituted in the late 19th cent. by a Paiute named Wovoka. The religion prophesied the peaceful end of the westward expansion of whites and a return of the land to the Native Americans.
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 of Native Americans, who believed that their ritual would cause ancestors and bison herds to return and white people to leave. Although a nonviolent form of protest, it ended with the massacre of over 200 Sioux men, women, and children by the U.S. army at Wounded KneeWounded Knee,
creek, rising in SW S.Dak. and flowing NW to the White River; site of the last major battle of the Indian wars. After the death of Sitting Bull, a band of Sioux, led by Big Foot, fled into the badlands, where they were captured by the 7th Cavalry on Dec.
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, S.Dak., in 1890. Cargo cults are another form of revitalization movement found in New Guinea and other parts of Melanesia, especially after the intense movements of armies through the area during World War II. Followers believe that local governments prevent their ancestors from delivering an abundance of European or American goods. Their rituals reflect their sense of economic marginalization, belief that the world capitalist economy behaves irrationally, and alienation from state-level politics. These movements are also referred to as nativistic, revivalistic, millenarian, or messianic.

Bibliography

See J. Mooney, The Ghost Dance Religion (1965); P. Worsley, The Trumpet Shall Sound (1968); A. H. Shovers, Visions of Peace (1985).

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Kroeger, MM, of the Loyola School of Theology, discusses some of these efforts in a case study written for an ecumenical Consultation on World Christian Revitalization Movements, under the auspices of the evangelical Asbury Theological Seminary in the United States.
be thought of as "Revitalization Movements." (188) He writes:
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Wallace described in a 1956 essay as an indigenous "revitalization movement." According to Wallace, who studied Iroquois and Delaware nativism in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, these revitalization movements were not simple atavism but, instead, "deliberate, organized, conscious effort[s] by members of a society to construct a more satisfying culture" in the face of colonialism (265).
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A chapter on the hybridity of Indian religious revitalization movements would be useful, beyond the Introductions short (if slightly defensive) discussion; other unpursued religious and educational encounters in this period come to mind.
Banks begins Part 1 by authoring a chapter entitled "Multicultural Education: Dimensions and Paradigms" in which he documents the increasing diversity of nation-states around the globe, discusses the influences of immigration and assimilation, identifies the rise of ethnic revitalization movements, and chronicles the growth of the field of multicultural education.
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This volume, produced in collaboration with the Center for the Study of World Christian Revitalization Movements, reproduces writings by Milton Wright (1828-1917), Bishop of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ (and father of aviation pioneers Orville and Wilbur Wright).
The bulk of the book comprises chapters on the origins and American careers of the various Protestant denominations, with other chapters devoted to Swedenborgianism and Transcendentalism, anti-Catholic nativism, the early history of Hispanic Catholicism in the Southwest, Judaism, Mormonism, late nineteenth-century Native American revitalization movements, and Asian religions.
America entered what Banks (1986) called a precondition phase for an ethnic revitalization movement. Ethnic revitalization movements arise when there is a history of democratic ideology but a reality of ethnic inequality.