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see oratoryoratory,
the art of swaying an audience by eloquent speech. In ancient Greece and Rome oratory was included under the term rhetoric, which meant the art of composing as well as delivering a speech.
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the study of oratory and prose in general. Rhetoric as an art originated in Greece in the fifth century B.C. and was reduced to a system in the third and second centuries B.C. Roman oratory dates from the first century B.C. The greatest theoreticians of ancient rhetoric were Aristotle, Cicero, and Quintilian.

Classic rhetoric was divided into five parts: invention, arrangement, verbal expression, memorization, and delivery. Invention is the systematization of the contents and proofs of a speech. Arrangement is the division of a speech into the introduction exposition, elaboration—proofs to support one’s own point of view and refutations of the arguments of one’s opponent—and conclusion. Verbal expression is the choice and combination of words, figures of speech, and rhetorical devices and—depending on the use of these elements—the choice of the simple, middle, or high style of speech.

Classical rhetoric, which was oriented primarily toward legal and ceremonial speeches, was studied in the Middle Ages mainly for the purpose of writing letters and sermons. During the Renaissance and the period of classicism, classical rhetoric was brought to bear on all types of prose. In Russia, the classical treatment of this “pervasive” rhetoric was given by M. V. Lomonosov in A Short Handbook on Eloquence (1748). Rhetoric was part of an education in the humanities until the 19th century, when its main component—verbal expression—merged with stylistics as part of the theory of literature and the remaining components lost their practical significance. The word “rhetoric” itself has taken on the offensive connotation of pompous and empty speech.


Cicero. Tri traktata ob oratorskom iskusstve. Moscow, 1972.
Antichnye teorii iazyka i stilia. Edited by O. Freidenberg. Moscow-Leningrad, 1936.
Lausberg, H. Handbuch der literarischen Rhetorik, vols. 1-2. Munich, 1960.
Martin, J. Antike Rhetorik. Munich, 1974.


References in periodicals archive ?
Each of the four comers of the rectangle provided topoi for inquiry and reflection: (1) Institutions and Places: "What types of reform of constitutional and other institutional designs might facilitate a more robust rhetorical democratic culture, at local, state, national, and international levels?" (2) Communicative Media: "What kinds of media reform do we need to improve civic participation and the quality of public argument?" (3) Rhetorical Practices: "[W]hat new forms of persuasive expression should be taught and practiced in our academic institutions?" (4) Cultural Rhetorics: "How might we metacommunicate across cultural divides about ideal forms of communication and persuasion?" (p.
Feminist Rhetorical Practices: New Horizons for Rhetoric, Composition, and Literacy Studies (Studies in Rhetorics and Feminisms).
The idea that "rhetoric might be thought of as a kind of cognitive science, an attempt, often unwitting, to map the workings of the thinking brain" is an intriguing point of departure for a new study of Shakespeare's language (9).
He briefly surveys the diffusion and reception of classical rhetoric in general (13-32) and in Italy in particular (33-55).
This paper broadly addresses the concept of multi-modal learning as it may be engaged in teaching rhetoric. It highlights an example drawn from the author's teaching experience--the creation of "vidblinks" with cell phones--as it explains how multi-modal learning is essential to a well-considered engagement of rhetoric's teaching as far as it encompasses artistic and inartistic proof.
Defining Visual Rhetorics has 14 chapters, including one by each of the editors.
The second theme is that Jefferson's own difficulties with rhetoric were not simply the poor chemistry between a random individual and a historically stable practice, but were rather symptoms of deeper tensions between a culturally older rhetoric (the rhetoric of Jefferson's original training) stressing language and argument as convention and artifice, and a more contemporary elocutionist rhetoric that stressed persuasion as relying on the stimulation of an audience's "natural" emotions (the rhetoric of Jefferson's growing acquaintance as a reader of men like John Rice and Lord Kames).
This collection of eassys surveys the philosophical intricacies and epistemological implications of contemporary thinking about rhetoric. Coming out of the 1986 Temple University conference on the rhetoric of human sciences, the contributors address the rhetorical turn that the field is taking.
Such Classical influences re-emerge at the Renaissance in the Ecclesiastes of Erasmus, 'the first full-scale rhetoric since antiquity and the very first comprehensive preaching rhetoric', which serves to 'make the Christian grand style possible'; in Melanchthon and the Protestant rhetoricians; in the Tridentine rhetorics, 'the rhetorical fulfillment of devout humanism'; in the 'general' rhetorics, Protestant and Catholic, of Sturm, Vossius, Keckermann, Alsted, and Caussin ('like Longinus gone baroque'); and in the Protestant rhetorics of the seventeenth century.
Rhetoric, the study of speaking or, better according to Aristotle, of finding the available means of persuasion, appears in one form or another in almost all communication disciplines.
Taking the Lowell Mills National Historical Park in Massachusetts as a case study, Propen (rhetoric and composition, York College of Pennsylvania) argues that perceptions of visual and material artifacts and the interpretations that such artifacts help foster can have varied consequences not only on the understanding of history but also on individual lived experiences and for broader societal issues such as legislation and policy making.