Rhinanthus


Also found in: Medical, Wikipedia.

Rhinanthus

 

(rattle), a genus of hemiparasitic plants of the family Scrophulariaceae. The plants are annual herbs with green, opposite, and usually serrate leaves. The flowers are mostly yellow and in spicate racemes; the corolla is two-lipped. The fruit, a laterally compressed capsule, has numerous winged (sometimes wingless) discoid seeds that rattle softly when the plant is shaken.

The approximately 50 species are found in the temperate and, to some degree, frigid zones of the northern hemisphere. The USSR has about 25 species, which grow mainly on wet meadows. R. vernalis (formerly R. major) and R. minor grow predominantly in forest and forest-steppe zones in wet meadows, along forest edges and the shores of bodies of water, and sometimes in fields. Both species, as well as many other species of Rhinanthus, parasitize the roots of meadow grasses and lower the yield and quality of hay. The plants are poisonous, since they contain the alkaloid rhinanthin. R. apterus, which is found predominantly in the forest zone of the European part of Western Siberia, is a weed of plantings of winter grains, mainly rye and wheat.

REFERENCE

Kott, S. A. Sornye rasteniia i bor’ba s nimi, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1961.

T. V. EGOROVA

References in periodicals archive ?
vexillo-calyculatum (it was found at a locality where the two species are sympatric and its flower color and leaf morphology was intermediate) means that ethological isolation between these two Antirrhinum species does not completely prevent gene-flow, a situation also observed in sympatric species of Rhinanthus (Kwak, 1979).
Pollination, hybridization and ethological isolation of Rhinanthus minor and R.
Maintenance of species integrity in sympatrically occurring Rhinanthus minor and Rhinanthus serotinus in the Netherlands.
Host selectivity and the mediation of competition by the root hemiparasite Rhinanthus minor.
The role of the hemiparasitic annual Rhinanthus minor in determining grassland community structure.
Zopfi (1995) studied patterns of life-history variation, morphology, ecology, and phylogeny in seven different habitat types of Rhinanthus glacialis (Scrophulariaceae).
Life history variation and infraspecific heterochrony in Rhinanthus glacialis (Scrophulariaceae).
The flowers of the Rhinantheae, such as Pedicularis, Melampyrum, Rhinanthus, Castilleja, and Lamourouxia [the latter may be a member of the Agalineae, according to its seed morphology in Barringer's (1984) study], also show strong bilateral symmetry.
Characteristic species of higher syntaxa Brachypodium genuense 4 3 4 Rhinanthus minor r r 1 Festuca rubra .
A study of the root hemiparasite Rhinanthus minor led to similar conclusions (Gibson and Watkinson 1992).
We studied this relationship with Agrostis capillaris, a perennial grass, and Rhinanthus serotinus, an annual facultative root hemiparasite, both plant species common in different types of grassland vegetation.
Defoliation of the host plants significantly affected aboveground biomass of the parasitic Rhinanthus serotinus plants (two-way ANOVA: [F.